Archive for the ‘Boots – Western’ Category

Volatile Women’s Phoenix Boot

Monday, September 12th, 2011

Listening to the Signals of the Market

This is reported to be an actual radio conversation of a US naval ship with Canadian authorities off the coast of Newfoundland in October 1995. Radio conversation released by the chief of naval operations, 10-10-95.

(Please Note: This story is an example of why it is important to listen and blend with the market. It is not meant as a political statement of any kind.)

CANADIANS: Please divert your course 15 degrees to the south to avoid a collision.

AMERICANS: Negative, Recommend you divert your course 15 degrees to the north to avoid a collision.

CANADIANS: Negative Sir. You will have to divert your course 15 degrees to the south to avoid a collision.

AMERICANS: This is the captain of a US Navy ship. I say again, divert YOUR course.

CANADIANS: No Sir, I say again, please you divert YOUR course.

AMERICANS: This is the Aircraft Carrier US LINCOLN, the second largest ship in the United States Atlantic Fleet. We are accompanied by three Destroyers, three Cruisers and numerous support vessels. I DEMAND that you change your course 15 degrees north. I say again, that’s one-five degrees north, or counter-measures will be undertaken to ensure the safety of this ship.

CANADIANS: Uh, Captain, This is a lighthouse. Your call.

The market, like a lighthouse, will send signals and it is incumbent on us to listen and to blend with the market. In a collision, the lighthouse (market) always wins.

Markets Maxims

One of my maxims says… “The stock will never listen to you, but, it will speak to you if you learn to listen”. Another one says, ” If you dance with a gorilla, don’t try to lead”. Folks, you must learn to listen (read charts and interpret news) and you must bend and blend with the market to avoid being crushed by it. This is not natural to our independent and proud natures. While we may be on the verge of a market upswing, every market upswing for 3 years has been met by a lower lows. Each upswing was seized upon by hopeful enthusiasm and dashed with the next roll over.

This has been a wonderful market for traders who trade both ways. It has been frustrating and devastating to one directional traders hoping for the return of a bull market. Trading is more than jumping in and holding on. It is dynamic and fluid and bidirectional. You must be trained in dynamic and tactical trading to flow with the market. You can and you must learn to do this. The following thought may help put this into perspective. It is paraphrased, as I cannot recall the author.

“The learners will inherit the earth while the learned will find themselves perfectly prepared and suited for a reality that no longer exists”.

Workshop Update

Boy what a week, we have just finished two great days of filming new materials for you in Phoenix and a “Two Days of Tradin’” boot camp in Denver. I was exhausted after the events but very pleased with the results. Both events were a success and the students loved the classes.

“The 1st day was a new course called Power Spreads. It will open you eyes very wide to understanding the power of using spreads to minimize risk and neutralize volatility. We also learned a great deal about option pricing and how to read volatility to select the most appropriate strategies. We used the X-Factor options graphing tool to historically trade QLGC and IBM and we saw price manipulation and how the options you may think is a good choice can be a real disappointment and why. I and sure you will enjoy the class when it is ready for purchase.

The second day we taped the new Market ‘Mind’ Fields. The class response was powerful. Some said it was like a mirror being held up to show them things they did not want to see but desperately needed to deal with. Almost all of us have land mines planted ion our minds. Market ‘Mind’ Fields will enlighten you to the reasons why trading is such a difficult challenge for folks and how to gain the mental disciple needed to survive and then thrive in the markets.

Friday and Saturday I was in Denver with a great bunch (mostly locals and mostly women) of students for my “Two Days of Tradin’” boot camp. What a fun time. I worked them pretty hard and they loved it. There were several who were very new and a little nervous but as the first day wore on they got into the swing of Bracket Trading(tm) and did very well. We traded several stocks on Friday just learning to go long and short at the right times. Back trading is a fantastic way to learn and train your train skills.

Saturday we added options to the mix by using the X Factor Options Graph to back trade several companies. We tracked several option strategies over run ups and sell offs to see which positions performed the best. Not all bullish strategies performed the same over the run ups and downs. It was very instructive to see the effect that different expiration months had on profitability. The students all realized that option trading is a lot more complicated than most people think. Picking the right strike, right month and whether to buy or sell premium can be critical. It is very possible to have two separate bullish option strategies at the same time and the one makes money while the other one loses.

New classes are being added to the calendar for March through May so check out which times and locations may fit your plans. You need to be in the trading simulator workshops. Two Days of Tradin’, will hone your trading skills like nothing else can.

Please join our Web shops and please consider coming to a Two Day Trading camp with me. I will work you … but you will come out a better trader.

Ryan with Better Trades

Volatile Women's Phoenix Boot

Volatile Women’s Phoenix Boot


This Phoenix boot from Volatile is as serious about attitude as it is style. Between the distressed upper, the slouchy silhouette, and the straps and buckles, this boot demands complete attention, while the contrasting side zipper is there for added flair and function….

Ariat Women’s Fatbaby Boot

Saturday, April 23rd, 2011

Women’s Ariat Fatbaby Boots?

Where can I find some of these boots that are in the $30 range.

I couldn’t find anything. Try Good luck!

Ariat Women's Fatbaby Saddle

Ariat Women’s Fatbaby Saddle


The Women’s Western collection combines legendary Ariat comfort and technology with colors, silhouettes and stitch patterns that look as good as they perform. Four levels of technology provide the right stability and support for every event and skill level….

Ariat Women's Fatbaby Zip Boot

Ariat Women’s Fatbaby Zip Boot


Ariat was founded with one simple objective: to provide the most technologically advanced riding boots for the world’s top equestrian athletes….

Ariat Women's Fatbaby Cowgirl Boot

Ariat Women’s Fatbaby Cowgirl Boot


Ariat was founded with one simple objective: to provide the most technologically advanced riding boots for the world’s top equestrian athletes….

Ariat Women's Fatbaby II Boot

Ariat Women’s Fatbaby II Boot


The Women’s Western collection combines legendary Ariat comfort and technology with colors, silhouettes and stitch patterns that look as good as they perform. Four levels of technology provide the right stability and support for every event and skill level….

Ariat Women's Fatbaby Boot

Ariat Women’s Fatbaby Boot


The Women’s Western collection combines legendary Ariat comfort and technology with colors, silhouettes and stitch patterns that look as good as they perform. Four levels of technology provide the right stability and support for every event and skill level….

Ariat Women’s Fatbaby

Monday, March 14th, 2011

Ariat Women’s Cobalt XR Pro or Ariat Women’s Cobalt Crepe Lacer . What pair is better for riding western?

I am trying to decide on a new pair of Ariat riding boots but can’t decied on the best pair for riding. What about the crepe sole, are they better? Or the Ariat Women’s ProBaby Lacer? I am not concerned about the cost I just want the best choice. I have a pair of english Ariat paddock boots that I ride in now and they are so comfortable but now I am riding western and want a new pair. I am concerned about the bulk of the western boots so I am leaning towards the lace up kind because they look narower but I love the look of the others. I also read that the fatbaby are too big for riding what about the probaby? Please Help!!!!

neither..they are too flashy and impractical…ariat womens heritage roper are what I have and they are so comfortable and last forever trust me those are the best..thats the only pair I have..have had them for 5 years and still look like new and are extremely comfortable even the first day you wear them…highly suggest them..have the rubber soles…seriously check it out..they aren’t all colorful and dont have flowers on them or anything but boy do they get the job done. I have the distressed brown ones and you don’t have to worry if they get dirty. Also, they aren’t that bulky..i could wear regular slim pants and the pant leg fits perfectly..but definately don’t wear with skinny jeans lol.But ya here is the link: good luck

Ariat Womens Fatbaby Three Piece Set Belt

Ariat Womens Fatbaby Three Piece Set Belt

Innovative styling and attention to detail in every piece made of premium leathers and superior construction for years of wear. Equestrian inspired and signature hardware featuring Ariat details and craftsmanship. Import….

Ariat Women's Fatbaby Saddle

Ariat Women’s Fatbaby Saddle


The Women’s Western collection combines legendary Ariat comfort and technology with colors, silhouettes and stitch patterns that look as good as they perform. Four levels of technology provide the right stability and support for every event and skill level….

Ariat Women's Fatbaby Zip Boot

Ariat Women’s Fatbaby Zip Boot


Ariat was founded with one simple objective: to provide the most technologically advanced riding boots for the world’s top equestrian athletes….

Ariat Women's Fatbaby Cowgirl Boot

Ariat Women’s Fatbaby Cowgirl Boot


Ariat was founded with one simple objective: to provide the most technologically advanced riding boots for the world’s top equestrian athletes….

Ariat Women's Fatbaby II Boot

Ariat Women’s Fatbaby II Boot


The Women’s Western collection combines legendary Ariat comfort and technology with colors, silhouettes and stitch patterns that look as good as they perform. Four levels of technology provide the right stability and support for every event and skill level….

John Deere Women’s Wellington Boot

Monday, October 25th, 2010

Timberland boots make your work experience safer and more comfortable

Timberland boots are a basic necessity, giving us comfort and protection while we work. No matter what kind of work we are into, cheap Timberland boots help us in giving an extra protection to make our work experience safer and more comfortable.

Rocky provides an amazing collection of boots for industrial work. Boot Barn, Georgia Boots, Rocky Boots, Online Shoes, Vanderbilt, The Work Boot, Amazon, Wearguard, Sheplers, Shoe Buy, Danner, Zappos, Super Casuals, Timberland boots Online, Cabela, Cavender, Viberg Boot, Walmart, La Crosse, Wolverine, and J.C Penny besides others are some places where you can find all types of boots of nearly all of the already mentioned brands.

Timberland boots can be divided into several types, each suited for a particular kind or type of work. ’6 inch lacers’, ’8 inch lacers’, ‘electrical hazard toe’, ‘safety toe hikers and shoes’, ‘slip resistant’, ‘steel toe boots’, ‘water resistant’, wedge sole’, ‘medical’, ‘all-terrain’, ‘mechanic’, ‘soft-toe’, ‘Iron-clad Wellington, logger, ranger, farm boot, and miner boot’ among others for men, and ‘Witchita western work, women’s ranger, women’s ride lacer, women’s Colorado city’, and much more are all available at Rocky.and many more are some examples of the numerous types available in the market.

Some of the popular brands which offer high-quality and excellent, durable timberland boots are Ariat, Nautilus, Timberland Pro Series, Wolverine, Georgia, Rocky, Blundstone, Caterpillar, Dr. Marten, Magnum, Chippewa, Carolina, Durango, Acme, Double-H, Roper, Justin, John Deere, Altama, Milwaukee, Dunham, and Dexter Fargo. Water resistant cheap timberland boots for men are usually provided by brands like Timberland, Wolverine, Georgia, Rocky, Blundstone, Caterpillar, and many more.

Men timberlands Series provides a series of timberland boots which are not only comfortable, but also have additional features like having ‘electrical hazard protection’, ‘leather uppers’, ‘steel cap’, ‘abrasion and slip resistant’, and much more. Safety toe hikers also have the ‘slip resistant’ and ‘waterproof’ features and are provided by brands such as Wolverine, Caterpillar, Dr. Marten, Magnum, and Rocky. Regular timberland boots which work well for all occasions are offered by Dr. Marten, Ariat, Justin, Wolverine, Caterpillar, and Chippewa among others.

Zappos, Cabela’s, Lacrosse, Shoe Buy, Wearguard, Online Shoes, and Boot Barn are some companies which offer complete satisfaction guarantee on all their boots and hence, allow for refunds under certain conditions.Discounted boots for both men and women can be sought at Sheplers. It deals in brands like Milwaukee, Justin, Ariat, and many more.

I think the Cheap Timberland Boots are really incomparable classical.And they are worthy for you to own it. Going to our online shop Timberlandca and you will find the one is so cheap by Timberland sale. In the other hand,the timberland boots are very durable and comfortable.Just have a look in the timberland boots online store.


John Deere Men's JD4393 Boot

John Deere Men’s JD4393 Boot


With its handsome leather upper, this boot has a classic and rugged look, but just like other John Deere equipment, it’s built to perform. A cushioned insole, moisture-wicking linings, and a steel toe ensure that you’ll be comfortable and secure in this high-performance style….

John Deere Women's Wellington Boot

John Deere Women’s Wellington Boot

Conquer the great outdoors in the quality and comfort of this boot from John Deere. Built to last, this leather and canvas boot features strong stitching and a durable outsole. The extra benefit of moisture-wicking lining makes it an unbeatable value….

John Deere Women's Mango Caress Wellington Boot

John Deere Women’s Mango Caress Wellington Boot


Boot Height: Approx. 9” Tall. This Wellington boot has a full grain leather upper. A moisture wicking nylon lining. A padded polyurethane insole. A reinforced tempered steel shank. And a lightweight and flexible high abrasion polyurethane outsole….

John Deere Women's Ostrich Print Wellington Boot

John Deere Women’s Ostrich Print Wellington Boot

Women’s John Deere Ostrich Print Wellington Boots… high class, high style! Boots you can’t beat with a bat! After working a hellacious work week, slip in these Ostrich Print Wellington Boots when you head out on the weekend! Features a white leather top and leather foot for a look you’ll love. And they’re comfortable too… the 3 MM John Deere green midsole knocks out foot shock so you can dance…

Not Rated Women’s Electrifying Boot

Wednesday, July 8th, 2009

Channel Tunnel


Proposals and attempts

Key dates


Albert Mathieu put forward a cross-Channel tunnel proposal.


The Channel Tunnel Company Ltd began preliminary trials


The Abbot’s Cliff heading had reached 897 yards (820 m) and that at Shakespeare Cliff was 2,040 yards (1,870 m) in length

January 1975

A UKrance government backed scheme that started in 1974 was cancelled

February 1986

The Treaty of Canterbury was signed allowing the project to proceed

June 1988

First tunnelling commenced in France

December 1988

UK TBM commenced operation

December 1990

The service tunnel broke through under the Channel

May 1994

The tunnel was formally opened by HM The Queen and President Mitterrand

Mid 1994

Freight and passenger trains commenced operation

November 1996

A fire in a lorry shuttle severely damaged the tunnel

November 2007

High Speed 1, linking London to the tunnel, opened

September 2008

Another fire in a lorry shuttle severely damaged the tunnel

December 2009

Eurostar trains stranded in the tunnel due to condensation affecting the trains’ electrical hardware

In 1802, French mining engineer Albert Mathieu put forward a proposal to tunnel under the English Channel, with illumination from oil lamps, horse-drawn coaches, and an artificial island mid-Channel for changing horses.

In the 1830s, Frenchman Aim Thom de Gamond performed the first geological and hydrographical surveys on the Channel, between Calais and Dover. Thom de Gamond explored several schemes and, in 1856, he presented a proposal to Napoleon III for a mined railway tunnel from Cap Gris-Nez to Eastwater Point with a port/airshaft on the Varne sandbank at a cost of 170 million francs, or less than GB7 million.

Thom de Gamond’s 1856 plan for a cross-Channel link, with a port/airshaft on the Varne sandbank mid-Channel

In 1865, a deputation led by George Ward Hunt proposed the idea of a tunnel to the Chancellor of the Exchequer of the day, William Ewart Gladstone.

After 1867, William Low and Sir John Clarke Hawkshaw promoted ideas, but none were implemented. An official Anglo-French protocol was established in 1876 for a cross-Channel railway tunnel. In 1881, British railway entrepreneur Sir William Watkin and French Suez Canal contractor Alexandre Lavalley were in the Anglo-French Submarine Railway Company that conducted exploratory work on both sides of the Channel. On the English side a 2.13-metre (7 ft) diameter Beumont-English boring machine dug a 1,893-metre (6,211 ft) pilot tunnel from Shakespeare Cliff. On the French side, a similar machine dug 1,669 metres (5,476 ft) from Sangatte. The project was abandoned in May 1882, owing to British political and press campaigns advocating that a tunnel would compromise Britain’s national defences. These early works were encountered more than a century later during the TML project.

In 1955, defence arguments were accepted to be irrelevant because of the dominance of air power; thus, both the British and French governments supported technical and geological surveys. Construction work commenced on both sides of the Channel in 1974, a government-funded project using twin tunnels on either side of a service tunnel, with capability for car shuttle wagons. In January 1975, to the dismay of the French partners, the British government cancelled the project. The government had changed to the Labour Party and there was uncertainty about EC membership, cost estimates had ballooned to 200% and the national economy was troubled. By this time the British Priestly TBM was ready and the Ministry of Transport was able to do a 300 m experimental drive. This short tunnel would however be reused as the starting and access point for tunnelling operations from the British side.

In 1979, the “Mouse-hole Project” was suggested when the Conservatives came to power in Britain. The concept was a single-track rail tunnel with a service tunnel, but without shuttle terminals. The British government took no interest in funding the project, but Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher said she had no objection to a privately funded project. In 1981 British and French leaders Margaret Thatcher and Franois Mitterrand agreed to set up a working group to look into a privately funded project, and in April 1985 promoters were formally invited to submit scheme proposals. Four submissions were shortlisted:

a rail proposal based on the 1975 scheme presented by Channel Tunnel Group/Franceanche (CTG/F),

Eurobridge: a 4.5 km span suspension bridge with a roadway in an enclosed tube

Euroroute: a 21 km tunnel between artificial islands approached by bridges, and

Channel Expressway: large diameter road tunnels with mid-channel ventilation towers.

The cross-Channel ferry industry protested under the name “Flexilink”. In 1975 there was no campaign protesting a fixed link, with one of the largest ferry operators (Sealink) being state-owned. Flexilink continued rousing opposition throughout 1986 and 1987. Public opinion strongly favoured a drive-through tunnel, but ventilation issues, concerns about accident management, and fear of driver mesmerisation led to the only shortlisted rail submission, CTG/F-M, being awarded the project.


A block diagram describing the organisation structure used on the project. Eurotunnel is the central organisation for construction and operation (via a concession) of the tunnel

The British Channel Tunnel Group consisted of two banks and five construction companies, while their French counterparts, Franceanche, consisted of three banks and five construction companies. The role of the banks was to advise on financing and secure loan commitments. On 2 July 1985, the groups formed Channel Tunnel Group/Franceanche (CTG/F). Their submission to the British and French governments was drawn from the 1975 project, including 11 volumes and a substantial environmental impact statement.

The design and construction was done by the ten construction companies in the CTG/F-M group. The French terminal and boring from Sangatte was undertaken by the five French construction companies in the joint venture group GIE Transmanche Construction. The English Terminal and boring from Shakespeare Cliff was undertaken by the five British construction companies in the Trankslink Joint Venture. The two partnerships were linked by TransManche Link (TML), a bi- national project organisation. The Matre d’Oeuvre was a supervisory engineering body employed by Eurotunnel under the terms of the concession that monitored project activity and reported back to the governments and banks.

In France, with its long tradition of infrastructure investment, the project garnered widespread approval and in April 1987 the French National Assembly gave unanimous support and, in June 1987, after a public inquiry, the Senate gave unanimous support. In Britain, select committees examined the proposal, making history by holding hearings outside of Westminster, in Kent. In February 1987, the third reading of the Channel Tunnel Bill took place in the House of Commons, and was carried by 94 votes to 22. The Channel Tunnel Act gained Royal assent and passed into English law in July of that year.

The Channel Tunnel is a build-own-operate-transfer (BOOT) project with a concession. TML would design and build the tunnel, but financing was through a separate legal entity: Eurotunnel. Eurotunnel absorbed CTG/F-M and signed a construction contract with TML; however, the British and French governments controlled final engineering and safety decisions. The British and French governments gave Eurotunnel a 55- (later 65-) year operating concession to repay loans and pay dividends. A Railway Usage Agreement was signed between Eurotunnel, British Rail and the Socit Nationale des Chemins de fer Franais guaranteeing future revenue in exchange for the railways obtaining half of the tunnel’s capacity.

Private funding for such a complex infrastructure project was of unprecedented scale. An initial equity of 45 million was raised by CTG/F-M, increased by 206 million private institutional placement, 770 million was raised in a public share offer that included press and television advertisements, a syndicated bank loan and letter of credit arranged 5 billion. Privately financed, the total investment costs at 1985 prices were 2600 million. At the 1994 completion actual costs were, in 1985 prices, 4650 million: an 80% cost overrun. The cost overrun was partly due to enhanced safety, security, and environmental demands. Financing costs were 140% higher than forecast.


Eleven tunnel boring machines, working from both sides of the Channel, cut through chalk marl to construct two rail tunnels and a service tunnel. The vehicle shuttle terminals are at Cheriton (part of Folkestone) and Coquelles, and are connected to the British and French motorways (M20 and A16 respectively).

Tunnelling commenced in 1988, and the tunnel began operating in 1994. In 1985 prices, the total construction cost was 4650 million (equivalent to 10152 million today), an 80% cost overrun. At the peak of construction 15,000 people were employed with daily expenditure over 3 million. Ten workers, eight of them British, were killed during construction between 1987 and 1993, most in the first few months of boring.


The Channel Tunnel was opened in Calais on 6 May 1994 by British Queen Elizabeth II and French President Franois Mitterrand

A small, two-inch (50-mm) diameter pilot hole allowed the service tunnel to break through without ceremony on 30 October 1990. On 1 December 1990, Englishman Graham Fagg and Frenchman Phillippe Cozette broke through the service tunnel with the media watching. Eurotunnel completed the tunnel on time, and the tunnel was officially opened by British Queen Elizabeth II and French President Franois Mitterrand in a ceremony held in Calais on 6 May 1994. The Queen travelled through the tunnel to Calais on a Eurostar train, which stopped nose to nose with the train that carried President Mitterrand from Paris. Following the ceremony President Mitterrand and the Queen travelled on Le Shuttle to a similar ceremony in Folkestone.

The Channel Tunnel Rail Link (CTRL), now called High Speed 1, runs 69 miles (111 km) from St Pancras railway station in London to the Channel Tunnel portal at Folkestone in Kent. It cost 5.8 billion. On 16 September 2003 UK Prime Minister Tony Blair opened the first section of High Speed 1, from Folkestone to north Kent. On 6 November 2007 the Queen officially opened High Speed 1 and St Pancras International station, replacing the original slower link to Waterloo International railway station. On High Speed 1 trains travelling at speeds up to 300 km/h (186 mph), the journey from London to Paris takes 2 hours 15 minutes and London to Brussels takes 1 hour 51 minutes.

In 1996, the American Society of Civil Engineers, with Popular Mechanics, selected the tunnel as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World.


The Channel Tunnel exhibit at the National Railway Museum in York, England, showing the circular cross section of the tunnel with the overhead line powering a Eurostar train. Also visible is the segmented tunnel lining

Surveying undertaken in the twenty years before tunnel construction confirmed earlier speculations that a tunnel route could be bored through a chalk marl stratum. The chalk marl was conducive to tunnelling, with impermeability, ease of excavation and strength. While on the English side the chalk marl ran along the entire length of the tunnel, on the French side a length of 5 kilometres (3 mi) had variable and difficult geology. The Channel Tunnel consists of three bores: two 7.6-metre (25 ft) diameter rail tunnels, 30 metres (98 ft) apart, 50 kilometres (31 mi) in length with a 4.8-metre (16 ft) diameter service tunnel in between. There are also cross-passages and piston relief ducts. The service tunnel was used as a pilot tunnel, boring ahead of the main tunnels to determine the conditions. English access was provided at Shakespeare Cliff, while French access came from a shaft at Sangatte. The French side used five tunnel boring machines (TBMs), the English side used six. The service tunnel uses Service Tunnel Transport System (STTS) and Light Service Tunnel Vehicles (LADOGS). Fire safety was a critical design issue.

Between the portals at Beussingue and Castle Hill the tunnel is 50.5 kilometres (31 mi) long, with 3.3 kilometres (2 mi) under land on the French side, 9.3 kilometres (6 mi) under land on the UK side and 37.9 kilometres (24 mi) under sea. This makes the Channel Tunnel the second longest rail tunnel in the world, behind the Seikan Tunnel in Japan, but with the longest under-sea section. The average depth is 45 metres (148 ft) below the seabed. On the UK side, of the expected 5 million cubic metres (6.510^6 cu yd) of spoil approximately 1 million cubic metres (1.310^6 cu yd) was used for fill at the terminal site, and the remainder was deposited at Lower Shakespeare Cliff behind a seawall, reclaiming 74 acres (30 ha) of land. This land was then made into the Samphire Hoe Country Park. Environmental impact assessment did not identify any major risks for the project, and further studies into safety, noise, and air pollution were overall positive. However, environmental objections were raised over a high-speed link to London.


Geological profile along the tunnel as constructed. For the majority of its length the tunnel bores through a chalk marl stratum (layer)

Successful tunnelling under the channel required a sound understanding of the topography and geology and the selection of the best rock strata through which to tunnel. The geology generally consists of northeasterly dipping Cretaceous strata, part of the northern limb of the Wealden-Boulonnais dome. Characteristics include:

Continuous chalk on the cliffs on either side of the Channel containing no major faulting, as observed by Verstegan in 1698

Four geological strata, marine sediments laid down 90100 million years ago; pervious upper and middle chalk above slightly pervious lower chalk and finally impermeable Gault Clay. A sandy stratum, glauconitic marl (tortia), is in between the chalk marl and gault clay

A 2530-metre (8298 ft) layer of chalk marl (French: craie bleue) in the lower third of the lower chalk appeared to present the best tunnelling medium. The chalk has a clay content of 3040% providing impermeability to groundwater yet relatively easy excavation with strength allowing minimal support. Ideally the tunnel would be bored in the bottom 15 metres (49 ft) of the chalk marl, allowing water inflow from fractures and joints to be minimised, but above the gault clay that would increase stress on the tunnel lining and swell and soften when wet.

On the English side of the channel, the strata dip less than 5, however, on the French side, this increases to 20. Jointing and faulting is present on both the English and French sides. On the English side, only minor faults of displacement less than 2 metres (7 ft) exist. On the French side, displacements of up to 15 metres (49 ft) are present owing to the Quenocs anticlinal fold. The faults are of limited width, filled with calcite, pyrite and remoulded clay. The increased dip and faulting restricted the selection of route on the French side. To avoid confusion microfossil assemblages were used to classify the chalk marl. On the French side, particularly near the coast, the chalk was harder, more brittle, and more fractured than on the English side. This led to the adoption of different tunnelling techniques on the French and English sides.

No major geological hazards were identified; however, the Quaternary undersea valley Fosse Dangaered, and Castle Hill landslip located at the English portal, caused concerns. Identified by the 196465 geophysical survey, the Fosse Dangaered is an infilled valley system extending 80 metres (262 ft) below the seabed, 500 metres (1,640 ft) south of the tunnel route, located mid-channel. A 1986 survey showed that a tributary crossed the path of the tunnel, and so the tunnel route was made as far north and deep as possible. The English terminal had to be located in the Castle Hill landslip, which consists of displaced and tipping blocks of lower chalk, glauconitic marl and gault debris. Thus the area was stabilised by buttressing and inserting drainage adits. The service tunnels were pilot tunnels preceding the main tunnels, so that the geology, areas of crushed rock, and zones of high water inflow could be predicted. Exploratory probing took place in the service tunnels, in the form of extensive forward probing, vertical downward probes and sideways probing.


Marine soundings and samplings by Thom de Gamond were carried out during 183367, establishing the seabed depth at a maximum of 55 metres (180 ft) and the continuity of geological strata (layers). Surveying continued over many years, with 166 marine and 70 land-deep boreholes being drilled and over 4000 line kilometres of marine geophysical survey completed. Surveys were undertaken in 195859, 196465, 197274 and 198688.

The surveying in 195859 catered for immersed tube and bridge designs as well as a bored tunnel, and thus a wide area was investigated. At this time marine geophysics surveying for engineering projects was in its infancy, with poor positioning and resolution from seismic profiling. The 1964-65 surveys concentrated on a northerly route that left the English coast at Dover harbour; using 70 boreholes, an area of deeply weathered rock with high permeability was located just south of Dover harbour.

Given the previous survey results and access constraints, a more southerly route was investigated in the 197273 survey and the route was confirmed to be feasible. Information for the tunnelling project also came from work before the 1975 cancellation. On the French side at Sangatte a deep shaft with adits was made. On the English side at Shakespeare Cliff, the government allowed 250 metres (820 ft) of 4.5 metres (15 ft) diameter tunnel to be driven. The actual tunnel alignment, method of excavation and support were essentially the same as the 1975 attempt. In the 198697 survey, previous findings were reinforced and the nature of the gault clay and tunnelling medium, chalk marl that made up 85% of the route, were investigated. Geophysical techniques from the oil industry were employed.


Typical tunnel cross section, with a service tunnel between twin rail tunnels. Shown linking the rail tunnels is a piston relief duct, necessary to manage pressure changes due to the movement of trains

Tunnelling between England and France was a major engineering challenge, with the only precedent being the undersea Seikan Tunnel in Japan. A serious risk with underwater tunnels is major water inflow due to the water pressure from the sea above under weak ground conditions. The Channel Tunnel also had the challenge of timeeing privately funded, early financial return was paramount.

The objective was to construct: two 7.6-metre (25 ft) diameter rail tunnels, 30 metres (98 ft) apart, 50 kilometres (31 mi) in length; a 4.8-metre (16 ft) diameter service tunnel between the two main tunnels; pairs of 3.3-metre (11 ft) diameter cross-passages linking the rail tunnels to the service tunnel at 375-metre (1,230 ft) spacing; piston relief ducts 2-metre (7 ft) diameter connecting the rail tunnels at 250-metre (820 ft) spacing; two undersea crossover caverns to connect the rail tunnels. The service tunnel always preceded the main tunnels by at least 1 kilometre (0.6 mi) to ascertain the ground conditions. There was plenty of experience with tunnelling through chalk in the mining industry. The undersea crossover caverns were a complex engineering problem. The French cavern was based on the Mount Baker Ridge freeway tunnel in the USA. The UK cavern was dug from the service tunnel ahead of the main tunnels to avoid delay.

Precast segmental linings in the main TBM drives were used, but different solutions were used on the English and French sides. On the French side, neoprene and grout sealed bolted linings made of cast iron or high-strength reinforced concrete were used. On the English side, the main requirement was for speed and bolting of cast-iron lining segments was only carried out in areas of poor geology. In the UK rail tunnels, eight lining segments plus a key segment were used; on the French side, five segments plus a key segment. On the French side, a 55-metre (180 ft) diameter 75-metre (246 ft) deep grout-curtained shaft at Sangatte was used for access. On the English side, a marshalling area was 140 metres (459 ft) below the top of Shakespeare Cliff, and the New Austrian Tunnelling method (NATM) was first applied in the chalk marl here. On the English side, the land tunnels were driven from Shakespeare Cliff, the same place as the marine tunnels, not from Folkestone. The platform at the base of the cliff was not large enough for all of the drives and, despite environmental objections, tunnel spoil was placed behind a reinforced concrete seawall, on condition of placing the chalk in an enclosed lagoon to avoid wide dispersal of chalk fines. Owing to limited space, the precast lining factory was on the Isle of Grain in the Thames estuary.

On the French side, owing to the greater permeability to water, earth pressure balance TBMs with open and closed modes were used. The TBMs were of a closed nature during the initial 5 kilometres (3 mi), but then operated as open, boring through the chalk marl stratum. This minimised the impact to the ground and allowed high water pressures to be withstood, and it also alleviated the need to grout ahead of the tunnel. The French effort required five TBMs: two main marine machines, one main land machine (the short land drives of 3 km allowed one TBM to complete the first drive then reverse direction and complete the other), and two service tunnel machines. On the English side, the simpler geology allowed faster open-faced TBMs. Six machines were used, all commenced digging from Shakespeare Cliff, three marine-bound and three for the land tunnels. Towards the completion of the undersea drives, the UK TBMs were driven steeply downwards and buried clear of the tunnel. The French TBMs then completed the tunnel and were dismantled. A 900 mm gauge railway was used on the English side during construction.

In contrast to the English machines, which were simply given alphanumeric names, the French tunnelling machines were all named after women: Brigitte, Europa, Catherine, Virginie, Pascaline, Sverine.

Railway design

Interior of Eurotunnel Shuttle, a vehicle shuttle train. The largest railway wagons in the world, the shuttle trains transport vehicles between terminals on either side of the tunnel


There are three communication systems in the tunnel: concession radio (CR) for mobile vehicles and personnel within Eurotunnel’s Concession (terminals, tunnels, coastal shafts); track-to-train radio (TTR) for secure speech and data between trains and the railway control centre; Shuttle internal radio (SIR) for communication between shuttle crew and to passengers over car radios.

Power supply

All tunnel services run on electricity, shared equally from English and French sources. Power is delivered to the locomotives via an overhead line (catenary) at 25 kV 50 Hz.

A large proportion of the railway south of London uses a 750 V DC third rail to deliver electrical power; however since the opening of High Speed 1 there is no need to use the third rail system for any part of the Eurostar journey. High Speed 1, the tunnel itself and the route to Paris has power provided via overhead catenary at 25 kV 50 Hz. The railways in Brussels are also electrified by overhead catenaries, but at 3000 V DC.


A cab signalling system is used that gives information directly to train drivers on a display. There is Automatic Train Protection (ATP) that stops the train if the speed differs from that indicated on the in-cab display. TVM430, as used on LGV Nord, is used in the tunnel. The maximum allowed speed is 160 km/h.

Track system

The American Sonneville International Corporation track system consisting of UIC60 rails on 900A grade resting on microcellular EVA pads, bolted into concrete was chosen. The larger European GB+ loading gauge was used rather that one of the smaller UK alternatives; this gauge is maintained on High Speed 1 as far as Barking in east London. ballasted track was ruled out owing to maintenance constraints and a need for geometric stability.

Rolling stock

Eurotunnel Shuttle

Main articles: Eurotunnel Shuttle and Eurotunnel Class 9

Initially 38 Le Shuttle locomotives were commissioned, working in pairs with one at each end of a shuttle train. The shuttles have two separate halves: single and double deck. Each half has two loading/unloading wagons and twelve carrier wagons. Eurotunnel’s original order was for nine tourist shuttles.

HGV shuttles also have two halves, with each half containing one loading wagon, one unloading wagon and 14 carrier wagons. There is a club car behind the leading locomotive. Eurotunnel originally ordered six HGV shuttles rakes.

Freight locomotives

See also: British Rail Class 92

Forty-six Class 92 locomotives for hauling freight trains and overnight passenger trains (the Nightstar project, which was abandoned) were commissioned, which can run on both overhead AC and third-rail DC power.

International passenger

Main article: British Rail Class 373

Thirty-one Eurostar trainsased on the French TGVuilt to UK loading gauge, and with many modifications for safety within the tunnel, were commissioned, with split ownership between British Rail, French National Railway Company and National Railway Company of Belgium. British Rail ordered seven more for services north of London.

At the end of 2009, extensive fire-proofing requirements were dropped and Deutsche Bahn received permission to run German Intercity-Express (ICE) trains through the Channel Tunnel in the future.

Service locomotives

Diesel locomotives for rescue and shunting work are Eurotunnel Class 0001 and Eurotunnel Class 0031.


Usage and services

A Channel Tunnel traffic graph showing the number of passengers and tonnes of freight. Freight vehicle shuttle numbers dropped in 1996/7 owing to closure of the service after the November 1996 fire

The British terminal at Cheriton in west Folkestone. The terminal services shuttle trains that carry vehicles, and is linked to the M20 motorway

The Folkestone White Horse is the last view of England for most passengers embarking at the Cheriton terminal

Services offered by the tunnel are:

Eurotunnel Shuttle (formerly Le Shuttle) roll-on roll-off shuttle service for road vehicles,

Eurostar passenger trains,

through freight trains.

Both the freight and passenger traffic forecasts that led to the construction of the tunnel were largely and universally overestimated. Particularly, Eurotunnel’s commissioned forecasts were over-predictions. Although the captured share of Channel crossings (competing with air and sea) was forecast correctly, high competition and reduced tariffs has led to low revenue. Overall cross-Channel traffic was overestimated.

Passenger traffic volumes

Total cross-tunnel passenger traffic volumes peaked at 18.4 million in 1998, then dropped to 14.9 million in 2003, from then rising again to 16.1 million in 2008.

At the time of deciding to build the tunnel, 15.9 million passengers were predicted for Eurostar trains in the opening year. In 1995, the first full year, actual numbers were a little over 2.9 million, growing to 7.1 million in 2000, then dropping again to 6.3 million in 2003. However, Eurostar was also limited by the lack of a high-speed connection on the British side. After the completion of High Speed 1 (formerly CTRL) to London in two stages in 2003 and 2007, traffic increased. In 2008, Eurostar carried 9,113,371 passengers in cross-Channel-Tunnel traffic, a 10% increase over the previous year, despite traffic limitations due to the 2008 Channel Tunnel fire.


Passengers transported…

by Eurostar[A]

(actual ticket sales)

by Eurotunnel Passenger Shuttles

(estimated, millions)


(estimated, millions)





























































A only passengers taking Eurostar to cross the Channel

Freight traffic volumes

Cross-tunnel freight traffic volumes have been erratic, with a decrease during 1997 due to a closure caused by a fire in a freight shuttle. The total freight crossings increased over the period, indicating the substitutability of the tunnel by sea crossings. The tunnel has achieved a cross-Channel freight traffic market share close to or above Eurotunnel’s 1980s predictions but Eurotunnel’s 1990 and 1994 predictions were overestimates.

For freight transported on through freight trains, the first year freight prediction was 7.2 million gross tonnes, however, the 1995 figure was 1.3 million gross tonnes. Through freight volumes peaked in 1998 at 3.1 million tonnes. However, with continuing problems, this figure fell back to 1.21 million tonnes in 2007, increasing again slightly to 1.24 million tonnes in 2008.

However, together with that carried on freight shuttles, freight traffic growth has occurred since opening, with 6.4 million tonnes carried in 1995, 18.4 million tonnes recorded in 2003 and 19.6 million tonnes in 2007.


Freight transported…

by through freight trains

(actual tonnes)

by Eurotunnel Truck Shuttles

(estimated, million tonnes)


(estimated, million tonnes)





























































B From October 2007, Eurotunnel invoices through railfreight by trains rather than tonne.

Eurotunnel’s freight subsidiary is Europorte 2. In September 2006 EWS, the UK’s largest rail freight operator, announced that owing to cessation of UK-French government subsidies of 52 million per annum to cover the Channel Tunnel “Minimum User Charge” (a subsidy of around 13,000 per train, at a traffic level of 4,000 trains per annum), freight trains would stop running after 30 November.

Economic performance

Shares in Eurotunnel were issued at 3.50 per share on 9 December 1987. By mid-1989 the price had risen to 11.00. Delays and cost overruns led to the share price dropping; during demonstration runs in October 1994 the share price reached an all-time low value. Eurotunnel suspended payment on its debt in September 1995 to avoid bankruptcy. In December 1997 the British and French governments extended Eurotunnel’s operating concession by 34 years to 2086. Financial restructuring of Eurotunnel occurred in mid-1998, reducing debt and financial charges. Despite the restructuring The Economist reported in 1998 that to break even Eurotunnel would have to increase fares, traffic and market share for sustainability. A cost benefit analysis of the Channel Tunnel indicated that there were few impacts on the wider economy and few developments associated with the project, and that the British economy would have been better off if the tunnel had not been constructed.

Under the terms of the Concession, Eurotunnel was obliged to investigate a cross-Channel road tunnel. In December 1999 road and rail tunnel proposals were presented to the British and French governments, but it was stressed that there was not enough demand for a second tunnel. A three-way treaty between the United Kingdom, France and Belgium governs border controls, with the establishment of control zones wherein the officers of the other nation may exercise limited customs and law enforcement powers. For most purposes these are at either end of the tunnel, with the French border controls on the UK side of the tunnel and vice versa. For certain city-to-city trains, the train itself represents a control zone. A binational emergency plan coordinates UK and French emergency activities.

In 1999 Eurostar posted its first ever net profits, having previously made a loss of 925m in 1995.


A Peugeot 807 entering a shuttle wagon at the French terminal at Coquelles near Calais in northern France

The terminals sites are at Cheriton (Folkestone in the United Kingdom) and Coquelles (Calais in France). The terminals are unique facilities designed to transfer vehicles from the motorway onto trains at a rate of 700 cars and 113 heavy vehicles per hour. The UK site uses the M20 motorway. The terminals are organised with the frontier controls juxtaposed with the entry to the system to allow travellers to go onto the motorway at the destination country immediately after leaving the shuttle. The area of the UK site was severely constrained and the design was challenging. The French layout was achieved more easily. To achieve design output, the shuttles accept cars on double-decks; for flexibility, ramps were placed inside the shuttles to provide access to the top decks. At Folkestone there is 20 kilometres (12 mi) of mainline track and 45 turnouts with eight platforms. At Calais there is 30 kilometres (19 mi) of track with 44 turnouts. At the terminals the shuttle trains traverse a figure eight to reduce uneven wear on the wheels.

Regional impact

A 1996 report from the European Commission predicted that Kent and Nord-Pas de Calais had to face increased traffic volumes due to general growth of cross-Channel traffic and traffic attracted by the tunnel. In Kent, a high-speed rail line to London would transfer traffic from road to rail. Kent’s regional development would benefit from the tunnel, but being so close to London restricts the benefits. Gains are in the traditional industries and are largely dependent on the development of Ashford International passenger station, without which Kent would be totally dependent on London’s expansion. Nord-Pas-de-Calais enjoys a strong internal symbolic effect of the Tunnel which results in significant gains in manufacturing.

The removal of a bottleneck by means like the Channel Tunnel does not necessarily induce economic gains in all adjacent regions, the image of a region being connected to the European high-speed transport and active political response are more important for regional economic development. Tunnel-induced regional development is small compared to general economic growth. The South East of England is likely to benefit developmentally and socially from faster and cheaper transport to continental Europe, but the benefits are unlikely to be equally distributed throughout the region. The overall environmental impact is almost certainly negative.

Five years after the opening of the tunnel, there were few and small impacts on the wider economy, and it was difficult to identify major developments associated with the tunnel. It has been postulated that the British economy would have actually been better off without the costs from the construction project, both Eurotunnel and Eurostar, companies heavily involved in the Channel Tunnel’s construction and operation, have had to resort to large amounts of government aid to deal with debts amounted. Eurotunnel has been described as being in a serious situation.


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Main articles: 1996 Channel Tunnel fire and 2008 Channel Tunnel fire

There have been three fires in the Channel Tunnel that were significant enough to close the tunnelll on the heavy goods vehicle (HGV) shuttlesnd other more minor incidents.

During an “invitation only” testing phase on 9 December 1994 a fire broke out in a Ford Escort car whilst its owner had been loading it on to the upper deck of a tourist shuttle. The fire started at approximately 10:00 with the shuttle train stationary in the Folkestone terminal and was extinguished around 40 minutes later with no passenger injuries.

On 18 November 1996 a fire broke out on a heavy goods vehicle shuttle wagon in the tunnel but nobody was seriously hurt. The exact cause is unknown, although it was not a Eurotunnel equipment or rolling stock problem; it may have been due to arson of a heavy goods vehicle. It is estimated that the heart of the fire reached 1,000 C (1,800 F), with the tunnel severely damaged over 46 metres (151 ft), with some 500 metres (1,640 ft) affected to some extent. Full operation recommenced six months after the fire.

The tunnel was closed for several hours on 21 August 2006, when a truck on an HGV shuttle train caught fire. On 11 September 2008 a fire occurred in the Channel Tunnel at 13:57 GMT. The incident started on a freight-carrying vehicle train travelling towards France. The event occurred 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from the French entrance to the tunnel. No one was killed but several people were taken to hospitals suffering from smoke inhalation, and minor cuts and bruises. The tunnel was closed to all traffic, with the undamaged South Tunnel reopening for limited services two days later. Full service resumed on 9 February 2009 after repairs costing 60 million.

Train failures

On the night of 19/20 February 1996, approximately 1,000 passengers became trapped in the Channel Tunnel when two British Rail Class 373 trains on continent-bound Eurostar service broke down owing to electronic failures caused by snow and ice.

On 3 August 2007 an electrical failure lasting six hours caused passengers to be trapped in the tunnel on a Eurotunnelshuttle crossing.

On the evening of 18 December 2009, during the December 2009 European snowfall, five London-bound trains operating Eurostar services failed inside the tunnel, trapping 2,000 passengers in the tunnel overnight. The large number of failed trains meant that both running tunnels were blocked. Five Class 373 trains had departed from Brussels and Paris and encountered cold temperatures in Northern France, the coldest for eight years. A Eurotunnel spokesperson explained that the problem had arisen because of ‘fluffy snow’ in France, which had evaded the ‘winterisation’ shields designed to stop snow getting into the electrics. Electrical failure was then caused by the transition from the cold air in France to the warm atmosphere inside the tunnel. Four of the failed trains had been carrying passengers, with the fifth being empty; one train from Brussels had been turned back to Brussels before reaching the tunnel. Two trains were hauled out of the tunnel using diesel-powered Eurotunnel Class 0001. The blocking of the Channel Tunnel led to the implementation of Operation Stack, the transformation of the M20 motorway into a linear car park.

Problems started at around 21:00, with Kent fire brigade being alerted at 21:46. The journeys of those involved took between eleven and sixteen hours. Snow that had built up on the trains then melted in the heat of the tunnel, the water causing electrical faults. Of the five Class 373 trains and two turned back:

18:59 Brusselsondon (9157); towed to London St Pancras by a Eurotunnel diesel locomotive. Delay of 3 hours 49 minutes.

18:43 Parisondon (9053); 700 passengers evacuated via service tunnel to an empty Eurotunnel shuttle train in opposite running tunnel. Passengers taken to Ashford International railway station, for conventional trains to London. Late into London by 12 hours, arriving at 08:00 the next morning.

19:13 Parisondon (9055); Coupled to adjacent 20:13 Eurostar train behind and dragged out by diesel locomotive, then continued to London. Hauled to Folkestone and picked up passengers from 20:13 Paris service behind it.

19:37 Disneylandondon (9057); 664 passengers evacuated via service tunnel to an empty Eurotunnel shuttle train in opposite running tunnel and taken via France.

20:13 Parisondon (9059); Coupled to adjacent 19:13 Eurostar train in front, passengers transferred to the earlier 19:13 train for journey to London or taken via Folkestone and transported in five coaches by road to London.

20:29 Brusselsondon (9163), held at Calais then turned back to Brussels before reaching the Channel Tunnel.

21:13 Parisondon (9063), held at Calais then turned back to Paris before reaching the Channel Tunnel.

The occasion was the first time during the fifteen years that a Eurostar train had to be evacuated inside the tunnel itself; the failing of four at once being described as “unprecedented”. The Channel Tunnel reopened at 05:40 CET the following morning.

The following evening, on 19 December 2009, an extra Eurostar service from Paris broke down. The train successfully negotiated the Channel Tunnel itself, then broke down outside. A second train was sent to tow the first to London, but failed at 18:25 while trying to haul it up a steep incline crossing Thurrock Viaduct on the outskirts of London. Eurostar passenger services restarted on 22 December 2009.

Nirj Deva, Member of the European Parliament for South East England, has called on Eurostar chief executive Richard Brown to resign over the incidents.

A further Class 373 unit on Brusselsondon service broke down in the tunnel on 7 January 2010. The train had 236 passengers on board and was towed to Ashford; other trains that had not yet reached the tunnel were turned back.

An independent report on the 18/19 December 2009 incidents was issued on 12 February 2010. The report was compiled by Christopher Garnett (former CEO of Great North Eastern Railway) and Claude Gressier (a French transport expert) and made 21 recommendations.

Asylum and immigration

Immigrants and would-be asylum seekers have been known to use the tunnel to attempt to enter Britain. By 1997, the problem had already attracted international press attention, and the French Red Cross opened a refugee centre at Sangatte in 1999, using a warehouse once used for tunnel construction; by 2002 it housed up to 1500 persons at a time, most of them trying to get to the UK. At one point, large numbers came from Afghanistan, Iraq and Iran, but African and Eastern European countries are also represented.

Most migrants who got into Britain found some way to ride a freight train, but others used Eurostar. Though the facilities were fenced, airtight security was deemed impossible; refugees would even jump from bridges onto moving trains. In several incidents people were injured during the crossing; others tampered with railway equipment, causing delays and requiring repairs. Eurotunnel said it was losing 5m per month because of the problem. A dozen refugees have died in crossing attempts.

In 2001 and 2002, several riots broke out at Sangatte and groups of refugees (up to 550 in a December 2001 incident) stormed the fences and attempted to enter en masse. Immigrants have also arrived as legitimate Eurostar passengers without proper entry papers.

Local authorities in both France and the UK called for the closure of Sangatte, and Eurotunnel twice sought an injunction against the centre. The United Kingdom blamed France for allowing Sangatte to open, and France blamed the UK for its lax asylum rules and the EU for not having a uniform immigration policy. The cause clbre nature of the problem even included journalists detained as they followed refugees onto railway property.

In 2002, after the European Commission told France that it was in breach of European Union rules on the free transfer of goods, because of the delays and closures as a result of its poor security, a double fence was built at a cost of 5 million, reducing the numbers of refugees detected each week reaching Britain on goods trains from 250 to almost none. Other measures included CCTV cameras and increased police patrols. At the end of 2002, the Sangatte centre was closed after the UK agreed to take some of its refugees.

See also: asylum shopping


The service tunnel is used for access to technical equipment in cross-passages and equipment rooms, to provide fresh-air ventilation, and for emergency evacuation. The Service Tunnel Transport System (STTS) allows fast access to all areas of the tunnel. The service vehicles are rubber-tyred with a buried guidance wire system. Twenty-four STTS vehicles were made, and are used mainly for maintenance but also for firefighting and in emergencies. “Pods” with different purposes, up to a payload of 2.55 t (2.85.5 tons), are inserted into the side of the vehicles. The STTS vehicles cannot turn around within the tunnel, and are driven from either end. The maximum speed is 80 km/h (50 mph) when the steering is locked. A smaller fleet of fifteen Light Service Tunnel Vehicles (LADOGS) were introduced to supplement the STTSs. The LADOGS have a short wheelbase with a 3.4 m (11 ft) turning circle allowing two-point turns within the service tunnel. Steering cannot be locked like the STTS vehicles, and maximum speed is 50 km/h (31 mph). Pods up to 1 tonne can be loaded onto the rear of the vehicles. Drivers in the tunnel sit on the right, and the vehicles drive on the left. Owing to the risk of French personnel driving on their native right side of the road, sensors in the road vehicles alert the driver if the vehicle strays to the right side of the tunnel.

The three tunnels contain 6,000 tonnes (6,600 tons) of air that needs to be conditioned for comfort and safety. Air is supplied from ventilation buildings at Shakespeare Cliff and Sangatte, with each building capable of full duty providing 100% standby capacity. Supplementary ventilation also exists on either side of the tunnel. In the event of a fire, ventilation is used to keep smoke out of the service tunnel and move smoke in one direction in the main tunnel to give passengers clean air. The Channel Tunnel was the first mainline railway tunnel to have special cooling equipment. Heat is generated from traction equipment and drag. The design limit was set at 30 C (86 F), using a mechanical cooling system with refrigeration plants on both the English and French sides that run chilled water circulating in pipes within the tunnel.

Trains travelling at high speed create piston-effect pressure changes that can affect passenger comfort, ventilation systems, tunnel doors, fans and the structure of the trains, and drag on the trains. Piston relief ducts of 2-metre (7 ft) diameter were chosen to solve the problem, with 4 ducts per kilometre to give close to optimum results. Unfortunately this design led to unacceptable lateral forces on the trains so a reduction in train speed was required and restrictors were installed in the ducts.

The safety issue of a fire on a passenger-vehicle shuttle garnered much attention, with Eurotunnel itself noting that fire was the risk gathering the most attention in a 1994 Safety Case for three reasons: ferry companies opposed to passengers being allowed to remain with their cars; Home Office statistics indicating that car fires had doubled in ten years; and the long length of the tunnel. Eurotunnel commissioned the UK Fire Research Station to give reports of vehicle fires, as well as liaising with Kent Fire Brigade to gather vehicle fire statistics over one year. Fire tests took place at the French Mines Research Establishment with a mock wagon used to investigate how cars burned. The wagon door systems are designed to withstand fire inside the wagon for 30 minutes, longer than the transit time of 27 minutes. Wagon air conditioning units help to purge dangerous fumes from inside the wagon before travel. Each wagon has a fire detection and extinguishing system, with sensing of ions or ultraviolet radiation, smoke and gases that can trigger halon gas to quench a fire. Since the Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) wagons are not covered, fire sensors are located on the loading wagon and in the tunnel itself. A 10-inch (250 mm) water main in the service tunnel provides water to the main tunnels at 125-metre (410 ft) intervals. The ventilation system can control smoke movement. Special arrival sidings exist to accept a train that is on fire, as the train is not allowed to stop whilst on fire in the tunnel. Eurotunnel has banned a wide range of hazardous goods from travelling in the tunnel. Two STTS vehicles with firefighting pods are on duty at all times, with a maximum delay of 10 minutes before they reach a burning train.

See also

British Rail Class 373

Irish Sea tunnel

Japan-Korea Undersea Tunnel

List of Rail megaprojects

Samphire Hoe


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^ Button, Kenneth (July 1990). “The Channel Tunnel: The Economic Implications for the South East of England”. The Geographical Journal 156 (2): 187199. doi:10.2307/635327. 

^ Flyvbjerg et al. p. 6869

^ “Coming soon: the Dome on wheels”. New Statesman. Retrieved 28 April 2009. 

^ Harrison, Michael (10 February 2004). “Eurotunnel calls for government support after record 1.3bn loss”. The Independent. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 

^ “Eurotunnel has 4bn too much debt”. The Telegraph. 12 January 2005. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 

^ “Debt-laden Channel tunnel rail link is ‘nationalised’”. The Guardian. 21 February 2006. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 

^ “Facts and figures Eurotunnel 2000-2004/Forecast 2005: Commentry and a suggestion”. June 2005. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 

^ Wolmar, Christian (10 December 1994). “Fire raises Channel Tunnel fears”. The Independent. Retrieved 25 December 2009. 

^ “Inquiry into the fire on Heavy Goods Vehicle Shuttle 7539 on 18 November 1996″. Channel Tunnel Safety Authority. May 1997. ISBN 0115519319. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 

^ a b C. J. Kirkland (2002). “The fire in the Channel Tunnel” (PDF). Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 17: 129132. doi:10.1016/S0886-7798(02)00014-7. 

^ “Lorry fire closes Channel Tunnel”. BBC News. 21 August 2006. Retrieved 21 August 2006. 

^ Rail Accident Investigation Branch (October 2007) Fire on HGV shuttle in the Channel Tunnel 21 August 2006 . Department for Transport. (Report).

^ Robert Wright (12 September 2008). “Channel tunnel fire causes further cancellations”. Financial Times. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 

^ “Channel Tunnel Fire Evacuation”. Sky News. 11 September 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2009. 

^ “Eurotunnel fully open to traffic”. Retrieved 14 January 2010. 

^ Wolmar, Christian (22 February 1996). “Wrong kind of snow in tunnel…”. The Independent. Retrieved 21 December 2009. 

^ “Delays after Channel Tunnel fault”. BBC News. 3 August 2007. Retrieved 14 January 2010. 

^ a b c “Severe Weather Brings Eurostar To A Halt”. Sky News. 19 December 2009. Retrieved 19 December 2009. 

^ Eurostar blames ‘fluffy’ snow for weekend chaos The Times 21 December 09

^ Eurostar cancels trains over snow – Press Association (21 December 09)

^ Cole, Rob (18 December 2009). “‘Nightmare’ Over For Stranded Passengers”. Sky News.…

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Saturday, May 2nd, 2009

Consideration And Adjustments With Rural Relocation

So you’re thinking about going country? It’s time to abandon the frenzy of city life, drop the ‘G’ from the end of your verbs and trade your Gucci for goats. You long to be in a place where business is done on a handshake, where your backyard is bountiful and where folks welcome you with warm apple pie and a smile. You want the simple life.

Over 1.6 million people moved to rural communities during the first five years of this decade. Several stayed. This migration continues – reinforced by dozens of national and regional periodicals presenting sanitized ‘country chic’ to millions of armchair rednecks. Having read a myriad of books and magazines about goin’ county, you are convinced it is for you. Why not?

Editorials immerse you with prose of serenity found. You are infatuated by the ideal of carvin’ your own nitch in the wilderness, collectin’ the morning eggs and whittlin’ on the porch swing each evening. Throughout the country, gentlemen greet women with the tip of a hat and a polite, “Howdy Mam.” You long to raise your children in a community where graciousness abounds while folks commune with nature in perfect harmony. With each flip of the page of County Cool Magazine you feel your stress level dip.

Before you lapse completely into a coma, bear a few things in mind. Full-page glossies of family reunions held beneath towering, shabby-chic barns make for better magazine copy than centerfolds of locals trying to avoid making eye contact with your U-Haul. Stylized black and whites of cowboys branding in the parched mid-day sun sell better than snapshots of the Mayor’s dead horses being left to rot all summer long, directly in the center of town. Furthermore, triumphant tales of battling the elements flow better than ancient country septic lines. No one knows why the media doesn’t ‘glam-up’ peeing in your barn. It must just be a fickle public.

Fickle indeed. I for one moved my son from our life long home in San Diego to my birth state of South Dakota three times before it stuck. Each time I recoiled in under a year. Best friends, scores of humanities, the Pacific surf and Thai food are a lot to give up at one time. Harder still was the shattering of my rose colored glasses.

The secret to a successful relocation is knowing what to honestly expect so you can laugh cathartically when the inevitable bizarre scenarios emerge. Sudden disillusionment is rarely a knee-slapper. Nonetheless, once adjusted, country life is closer to Nirvana than most get here on Earth. Thus, while everyone else pumps pure country sunshine straight up your knickers, I consider it my obligation to provide balance to the Universe.

Almost daily I question my reasons for living in the hinterland. For these moments of apprehension, I maintain lists in my mind. My lists remind me both what drove me out of California and why I cannot abandon country life. A hardy dose of big city burn out definitely came into play. For starters, I realized I was so sick of commuting I’d rather endure seven months per year in an icebox with no sunlight than sit in another traffic jam. With that thought alone I was ready to pull up my roots. I also decided to move.

In fact, developing a loathing of the Urban Jungle was vital to my eventual ‘success’ in relocating. In retrospect, my twig was definitely about to snap. Of course, so many city folk run around with fully bent twigs, we never realize the contorted conditions of our existence. That many people living in close proximity, under the confines of excessive regulations, is the proverbial pressure cooker.  
Urbanites and recent country converts wondering if your view on life may be intensely contorted are welcome refer to my lists. They provide perspective. For example: Signs of how ‘screwed-up’ you may be would include the following.

You’re having your morning coffee, a cow walks through the front yard. You don’t own a cow. You freak out, hit 911 and sue the Meat Packers of America.

You believe shoes matching your nail polish is in any way a daily priority.

You don’t recognize that it is morally bankrupt to apply for a permit from a homeowners association to put out a lawn ornament.

You carry more electronic gadgets on your person than Radio Shack inventories.

You drive to work past ‘that same old group of homeless people.’

You smile and say, “Hi,” to strangers only because you know it screws with their minds.

Your horse board expenses equal the Gross National Product of Guatemala
You’re convinced you are invisible and need two years of plastic surgery just so city gentlemen won’t let the C-Store door spring back in your face.

You pitch a fit when your favorite salad bar serves cheese made with non-vegetarian rennet, then drive the kids to Burgers Burgers Burgers.

Your children spend more time in the TV den than in treetops and you think that’s acceptable.

You get a building permit and three estimates to hang a painting.

Any chimes ringing? If so, remove yourself form Urbania immediately! Your twig is at maximum contortion! Give the country three years and you will stay. Transition is difficult, but once your up-tight attitude is vanquished, your twig unbends. These are the indicators you are settling in to the ‘Simple Life.’

You’re having your morning coffee. A cow walks through the front yard. You don’t own a cow. You sit down and drink your coffee.

Shoes’ matching each other is low on the list of daily priorities.

Your outhouse is not just a chic lawn ornament.

You save getting the chickens drunk for when you have houseguests.

You have no idea where your cell phone went, but the Border Collie is wearing your pager.

You drive to work past ‘that same old herd of buffalo’.

Your bird feeder expenses are equivalent to the Gross National Product of Canada.

Elk mounts ordain the walls of your favorite salad bar.

Your children spend more time in the their tree house than in school.

Yes, these are definitely telltale signs, you have lost that city pace. Although you can never voluntarily raise your stress level back to match city slickers, you have not lost yourself completely. Search the little places. Vestiges of your past will appear. These are the traits of an American Hybrid.
While having your morning cappuccino, a cow walks through the front yard. You don’t own a cow. You toss it a biscotti.

You can’t decide whether to paint the walls of the outhouse in a contemporary or impressionistic motif.

You use the word motif in the same sentence with outhouse.

You actually make homemade preserves – wild chokecherries with a boisterous zinfandel you picked up in Napa last season.

Mascara before milking.

You winter in the gulf of Siam. You summer in bib overalls.

You smile and say, “Hi,” to strangers only because you know it screws with their minds.
You could never shoot a deer, but you can dress that sucker out in under two hours.

You fence in a sarong and thongs. (This one gets the neighbors talking.)

You frequently run to town for Hawaiian Tofu and Goat Chow.

You have a different pair of hiking boots for every occasion.

Egyptian cotton sheets and a commissioned replica of Picasso’s Woman with Three Breasts enclose the baby chickens being reared in your bedroom closet.

It’s true, every day more and more of us are getting too screwed up to ever return to the city. Still, for all our differences country folk and city slickers posses one commonality. Neither group thinks twice about the US Government’s Food Pyramid. I guess we have to start somewhere.

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