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Wednesday, April 21st, 2010

Differences Between Malay And Indonesian

Orthography

Before the 20th century, Malay was written in a modified form of the Arabic alphabet known as Jawi. After the 20th century, Malay written with Roman letters, known as Rumi, has almost completely replaced Jawi in everyday life. The romanisations originally used in Malaya (now part of Malaysia) and the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) reflected their positions as British and Dutch possessions respectively.

In Indonesia, the vowel in the English word ‘moon’ was formerly represented in Indonesian as oe, as in Dutch, and the official spelling of this sound was changed to u in 1947.

Similarly, until 1972, the initial consonant of the English ‘chin’ was represented in Malay as ch, whereas in Indonesian, it continued to follow Dutch and used tj. Hence the word for ‘grandchild’ used to be written as chuchu in Malay and tjoetjoe in Indonesian, until a unified spelling system was introduced in 1972 (known in Indonesia as Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan or the ‘Perfected Spelling’) which removed most differences between the two varieties: Malay ch and Indonesian tj became c: hence cucu.

Indonesian abandoned the spelling dj (for the consonant at the beginning of the word ‘Jakarta’) to conform to the j already in use in Malay, while the old Indonesian j for the semivowel at the beginning of the English ‘young’, was replaced with y as in Malay. Likewise, the velar fricative which occurs in many Arabic loanwords, which used to be written ‘ch’ in Indonesian, became kh in both languages.

However, oe was retained in some proper names, such as the name of the first President, Sukarno (written as Soekarno), and his successor Suharto, (written as Soeharto). The ch and dj letter combinations are still encountered in names such as Achmad and Djojo (pronounced as Akhmad and Joyo respectively), although the post-1972 spelling is now favoured.

Although the representations of speech sounds are now largely identical in the Indonesian and Malay varieties, a number of minor spelling differences remain, usually for historical reasons. For instance, the word for ‘money’ is written as wang in Malay, but uang in Indonesian, the word for ‘try’ is written as cuba in Malay, but coba in Indonesian, the word for ‘because’ is written as kerana in Malay, but karena in Indonesian, while the word for ‘cake’ is written as kuih in Malay, but kue in Indonesian.

Pronunciation

Pronunciation also tends to be very different, with East Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia speaking a dialect called Bahasa Baku,[citation needed] where the words are pronounced as spelt and enunciation tends to be clipped, staccato and faster than the Malay spoken in the Malay Peninsula, which is spoken at a more languorous pace. Many vowels are pronounced (and were formerly spelt) differently in Peninsular Malaysia: tujuh is pronounced (and was spelt) tujoh, pilih as pileh, etc., and many final a’s tend to be pronounced as schwas.

Vocabulary

Vocabulary differences

Indonesian differs from Malay in having words of Javanese and Dutch origin, although Indonesian is based on Malay in Riau province (Bahasa Melayu Riau). For example, the word for ‘post office’ in Malay is “pejabat pos” (in Indonesian this means ‘post officer’), whereas in Indonesian it is “kantor pos”, from the Dutch word for office, kantoor. There are also some Portuguese influences: in Indonesian, Christmas is known as “Natal”, whereas Malay uses “Krismas”, derived from English. There are also instances where the Malay version derives from English pronunciation while the Indonesian version takes its cue from Latin. The Latin preference of the (older) Indonesian intellectuals in these instances may be ascribed to the influence of their classical-oriented education when Gymnasium schools were established during the Dutch colonial period : compare Malay kualiti, kuantiti, majoriti, minoriti and universiti with Indonesian kualitas, kuantitas, mayoritas, minoritas and universitas.

The relatively large share of Islamic (Arabic or Persian) loan words shared by Malay and Indonesian often poses no difficulty in comprehension and usage, although some forms may have developed a (slightly) different meaning or have become obsolete either in Malay or in Indonesian, e.g. , khidmat, wakil (see below).

English

Malay

Indonesian

account (bank,bills)

akaun

rekening (from Dutch)

accountant

akauntan

akuntan

advertisement

iklan (also used in Indonesian)

reklame (from Dutch)

after

selepas

lepas, setelah (also used in Malay to indicate consecutive actions)

afternoon

tengah hari

sore (can also refer to the evening); petang (less frequent)

agent

ejen, agen (in science term)

agen

airport

lapangan terbang

(lit. field/expanse + to fly)

bandara (from bandar udara, lit. port+air), lapangan terbang (used for air force base)

apartment

pangsapuri, rumah pangsa, rumah kondo (only for ‘condominium’)

apartemen, rumah susun

archive

arkib

arsip (from Dutch archief)

archdiocese

kawasan kekuasaan ketua biskop

keuskupan agung

assets

aset

aktiva, harta (Javanese= wealth) (from Dutch activa), aset also used

auction

lelong

lelang

August

Ogos

Agustus (from Dutch augustus)

auntie

makcik (also used in bahasa Melayu Riau, Indonesia)

tante (from Dutch), Ibu Gede, Ibu Cilik (Javanese)

autobiography

autobiografi (also used in Indonesian)

otobiografi (derived from the Dutch pronuncation of autobiografie, with au pronounced as French [o])

automatic

automatik (formerly otomatik)

otomatis (derived from the Dutch pronuncation of automatisch)

autonomy

autonomi

otonomi

balcony

serambi, beranda,from Bengali, Portuguese or English verandah; (also used in Indonesia but less common)

serambi, balkon, from Portuguese balco or Dutch balkon

bag

beg

Tas(from Dutch tas lit. bag)

basin

besen

wastafel (from Dutch), baskom – from Dutch waskom

because

kerana, sebab

karena, sebab, in some cases makanya (literally: thus it follows the cause is…”

Belgium

Belgium

Belgia – from Dutch Belgi

bicycle

basikal

sepeda kaki – from French velocipede

billion

bilion

miliar, milyar (from Dutch miljard)

bishop

biskop, bisyop

uskup

bonnet, hood (of car)

bonet, bumbung, hud

kap (from Dutch)

boot, trunk (of car)

but

koper, kopor (from Dutch koffer)

breast

buah dada, payudara, tetek (slang)

payudara (Sanskrit & Javanese), buah dada, susu (slang), tetek (vulgar slang),toket (popular slang now)

Britain

Britain

Inggris, Britania

bus

bas

bis (Dutch pronunciation of bus, bis)

bus station

stesen bas

terminal bis

bus stop

perhentian bas

halte bis (from Dutch bushalte)

campaign

kempen

kampanye – (similar to the pronunciation of the Dutch word campagne)

can (to be able)

boleh (used in Indonesia in the sense of “may be allow”ed to)

bisa, dapat

cancer

kanser, barah

kanker (from Dutch)

car

kereta (means ‘train’ in Indonesian)

mobil, oto – from Dutch auto

card

kad

kartu (from Dutch kaart)

carrot

lobak merah

wortel (from Dutch)

case

kes

kasus, hal

cash

wang tunai

uang (Javanese) tunai (only in regards to accounts as in “‘akun tunai, kas

cashier

juruwang

kasir, – (from Dutch kassier) pemegang kas

census

banci (means “transsexual” or “effeminate male” in Indonesian)

sensus

centipede

lipan (also infrequently used in Indonesian)

kelabang

chilli

cili, lada, cabai (used in the northern states of Malaysia)

lombok (Javanese nggoko), cabe (Javanese madaya)used in oral communication, cabai

China

China (More widely used now), Negara Cina

China (More widely used now), Republik Rakyat Cina/China, Tionghoa (race) or Tiongkok – rarely used/old spelling (country)

cinema

panggung wayang bergambar (or more popularly when contracted, pawagam), panggung wayang

bioskop (from Dutch bioscoop), sinema (more popular now)

civic

sivik, bersifat kewarganegaraan

bersifat kewarganegaraan

civil

sivil

sipil

city

bandar (means “port” in Indonesian)

kota

club (association)

kelab

perkumpulan, majelis, klub, klab, yayasan (Arabic: used for charitable clubs)

coat

kot

jas (from Dutch jas)

cockroach

lipas

kecoak (from the Chinese Hokkien dialect ka chua)

college

kolej, maktab

Universitas, kampus, kolese, perkuliahan (kuliah = lecture)

Commonwealth of Nations

Negara-Negara Komanwel

Negara-Negara Persemakmuran

company

syarikat

perusahaan, firma, maskapai (from Dutch maatschappij)

constitution of country

perlembagaan

undang-undang dasar, konstitusi (from Dutch constitutie

counter

kaunter

loket (from Dutch loket), konter

court

mahkamah

pengadilan

Croatia

Croatia

Kroasia

current (topical)

semasa (also used in Indonesian)

aktual (from Dutch actueel)

current affairs

peristiwa semasa (also used in Indonesian)

aktualitas (from Dutch actualiteit)

curtain

langsir, tirai

hordeng, korden (from Dutch gordijn), tirai

customs (department)

kastam

duane (from Dutch douane), bea cukai, pabean

Cyprus

Cyprus

Siprus (similar to the Dutch pronunciation)

Czech Republic

Republik Czech

Ceko, Republik Ceko, Ceska, Republik Ceska

dandruff

kelemumur

ketombe

degree (temperature)

darjah

derajat

democratic

demokratik

demokratis (similar to the Dutch pronunciation of democratisch)

department

jabatan

departemen

difference

perbezaan

perbedaan

diocese

kawasan uskup

keuskupan

director

pengarah

direktur (from Dutch directeur), sutradara (Sanskrit-Javanese)(film)

directory

buku panduan, direktori

buku petunjuk

discount

diskaun, potongan (harga), rebat

korting (from Dutch), diskon (less frequently used), rabat, potongan

driver

pemandu

supir (from French, through Dutch: chauffeur), sopir (slang), pengemudi (formal)

driving licence

lesen memandu

ribewis (from Dutch rijbewijs) (slang), surat ijin mengemudi (SIM) now more widely used

December

Disember

Desember (pronounced: dsember, as in Dutch)

duty (tariff)

duti, cukai – also used in Indonesian

bea

Easter

Easter

Paskah (from Portuguese Pascoa)

editor

penyunting rarely used in Indonesian

editor, redaktur (from French-Dutch redacteur)

effectiveness

keberkesanan

efektivitas, (from Dutch effectiviteit) kemanjuran

eight

lapan (also the Indonesian slang word)

delapan (used in Malaysia before the spelling reform)

electricity

tenaga elektrik (literally “electric energy”)

listrik

emergency

kecemasan

darurat (from Arabic; also used in Malaysia to mean a state of emergency)

emperor

maharaja

Raja (Sanskrit-Javanese- king), kaisar (from Dutch keizer), maharaja (Sanskrit-Javanese: Majestic King)

empire

empayar

kerajaan

engine

enjin

mesin (from Dutch machine, also used to refer to what translates into machine in English)

extinct

pupus

padam (of flames or lights), kepunahkan (of animate objects- ie species)

export

eksport

ekspor (from Dutch)

factory

kilang

- Indonesian word for mill or factory for processing or refining natural products, i.e. kilang minyak (‘oil refinery’)

pabrik

(from Dutch fabriek)

faction (political)

puak (tribe)

fraksi (from Dutch fractie)

February

Februari

Februari, Pebruari (slang)

federal

persekutuan

federal: pemerintah pusat (central government)

federation

persekutuan

federasi (from Dutch federatie)

fermented rice

tapai

tape, tapai (Sumatera variation)

financial

kewangan

keuangan, finansial

Finland

Finland

Finlandia

floor (as in “the 2nd floor”)

tingkat (also used in Indonesian- though it means floor as in a store or office eg “Fourth floor” )

lantai (means “floor”- ground surface in Malay)

France

Perancis

Prancis or Perancis

football

bola, bola sepak

sepak bola

free of charge

percuma (in Indonesia means “worthless”)

gratis (from Dutch ‘free of charge’)), cuma-cuma

furniture

perabot rumah, perkakas rumah(also used in Indonesian)

mebel (from Dutch meubel)

general (military)

jeneral

jenderal

golf club (stick)

kayu golf

pemukul golf

government

kerajaan (derived from raja or “king”) – Indonesian word for “kingdom”

pemerintahan used in Singapore to refer to government. In Malaysia and Brunei understood but less frequently used governmental= pemerintah

governor

gabenor, yang di-pertua negeri/negara (in Malaysian state)

gubernur from Dutch gouverneur

graduate

siswazah, sarjana

gelar sarjana (1st degree most commonly of a humanities: a “Bachelor of Arts”= Sarjana Muda Sastra

head office

ibu pejabat (in Indonesia means “female officer” or “mother of an officer”)

kantor pusat (from Dutch)

headscarf

tudung

kerudung, jilbab

healthy

sihat

sehat

herb

herba

jamu (in Malay (and another definition in Indonesian), means “to treat, to entertain guests”)

hospital

hospital

rumah sakit (literally means “sick house”, from Dutch ziekenhuis. The word is still used in Brunei to refer to hospital but in Malaysia, the term ‘hospital’ is more prevalent since the mid-sixties)

maternity hospital

hospital bersalin

rumah sakit bersalin

I

saya, aku

saya, aku, gue (slang, informal)

Hungary

Hungary

Hongaria (influenced by Dutch Hongarije)

ice

ais

es

ice cream

ais krim

es krim

Iceland

Iceland

Islandia

illegal drugs

dadah

narkoba -an acronym for NARKotika dan OBat-obatan terlArang (narcotics and illegal drugs), napza -an acronym for NArkotika, Psikotropika dan Zat-zat Adiktif (narcotics, psychotropics, and addictive chemical substances)

image

citra (also used in Indonesian), imej, gambar

foto (photographic image) gambar (drawn or similar), citra (as in Borrman image or corporate image). Lukisan is for paintings

immigration

imigresen

imigrasi (from Dutch immigratie)

import

import

impor

impotence

mati pucuk, impotensi, lemah syahwat

(sexually) impotensi, lemah syahwat (from Dutch impotentie)

installment (payment)

ansuran

angsuran, cicilan

insurance

insurans

asuransi (from Dutch assurantie)

international

antarabangsa

internasional, antarbangsa

internet cafe

kafe internet, kafe cyber

warnet (short for “warung internet”, “warung” is from Dutch “waroeng”)

Ireland

Ireland

Irlandia

Italy

Itali

Italia

licence

lesen

ijin, lisensi (from Dutch licentie)

Japan

Jepun

Jepang

Jordan

Jordan

Yordania (from Dutch Jordani)

journalist

wartawan

wartawan, jurnalis

June

Jun

Juni (from Dutch juni)

July

Julai

Juli (from Dutch juli)

lane (roads/highway)

lorong

jalur lalu lintas (traffic) -modified version of jalur (track), (lajur is understood but not frequently used in Malaysia while jalur is used in Malaysia to mean stripe or band. e.g. broadband = jalur-lebar) Jalur in Indonesian means “line”, “Column” or line of soldiers/defense/geographic.

lawyer

peguam

pengacara (used in Malay to mean ‘master of ceremony’, advokat (from Dutch advocaat)

Lebanon

Lubnan

Lebanon

lemon

lemon, limau

jeruk limun (‘jeruk’ used in Malay to mean ‘pickle’)

liabilities

liabiliti

pasiva, kewajiban (from Latino-Dutch passiva)

lift, elevator

lif

Elevator

lime (fruit)

limau

jeruk limau (not to be confused with jeruk nipis- the tiny lime for sambal)

Lisbon

Lisbon

Lisabon (as in Dutch Lissabon), Lisboa (as in Portuguese), Lisbon

Lithuania

Lithuania

Lituania

magistrate

majistret

hakim (from Arabic , also used in Malay)

male

lelaki, laki-laki, jantan (for animals, sometimes used as a derogatory term on men)

dewasa (Sanskrit-Javanese: adult male) pria, laki-laki, cowok (colloquial), jantan (plants-animals only)

malfunction

rosak, mati, tak berfungsi

kegagalan pemakaian (failed inner workings), rusak, mati, tak berfungsi

March

Mac

Maret (from Dutch maart)

mattress

tilam

kasur, matras

mathematics

ilmu matematik

ilmu pasti, matematika

mean verb

bererti

berarti

medication

ubat

obat

minibus

bas mini

mikrolet, angkot (angkutan kota), minibis (Dutch pronunciation)

minute

minit

menit

Mrs (married woman)

puan

garwo (Javanese) Istri (wife: Javanese), Ibu, nyonya (from Dutch), puan(less frequent now)

mobile phone, cellphone

telefon bimbit, telefon tangan

hand-phone (HP pronounced Ha-pey), telepon genggam, telepon selular, ponsel, HP

Monday

Isnin

Senin

money

wang, duit

uang, dana (used in Malay to mean ‘funding’), duit (from Dutch duit)(slang)

mortgage

gadai janji

hipotik (from Dutch hypotheek)

Moscow

Moskow (also used in Indonesian)

Moskwa

motorcycle

motosikal

motor, sepeda motor (literally “motor bicycle”, as in Dutch motorfiets)

music

muzik

musik

naked

bogel (means “short” in Indonesian- it is a common Javanese word), telanjang

telanjang, bugil (Javanese) (slang)

national

kebangsaan (used in Indonesian to mean “nationality”), nasional

Bangsa, Negeri, warganegara (relating to citizenship), nasional

natural

semulajadi

alami

newspaper

surat khabar (coined from two Arabic words, at – / ‘form, appearance’ and khabar ‘news’)

koran, harian, surat kabar (more formal)

New Zealand

New Zealand

Selandia Baru

noisy

bising, kecoh, memekak

berisik, ramai, bising (also means “buzzing”), ribut (of children)

Norway

Norway

Norwegia (influenced by Dutch Noorwegen)

not

tidak, tak (informal), endak (sabah language)

tidak, tak (rarely used – usually for the same usage as non-), nggak (slang), gak (slang – chat word)

number

nombor

nomor or nomer (from Dutch nummer)

nurse

jururawat

perawat, suster (from Dutch)

office

pejabat

kantor (from Dutch kantoor)

official (adj.)

rasmi

resmi (from Arabo-Persian rasmi )

orange (fruit)

oren, limau

jeruk, limau

orange (colour)

jingga, oren

jingga, oranye (from Dutch oranje)

order

order, perintah

orde – from Dutch, perintah

Palestine

Palestin

Palestina

parliament

parlimen

parlemen (from Franco-Dutch parlement)

party (political)

parti

partai (from Dutch partij)

passport

pasport

paspor (internationalism)

pavement, sidewalk

jalan pinggir, jalur jalan untuk pejalan kaki, laluan jalan kaki, kaki lima

trotoar(from Franco-Dutch trottoir), kakilima

penis

zakar (from Arabic “male”- this word is extremely vulgar in Indonesian), batang lelaki, konek (slang)

alat kelamin laki-laki (male genitalia) kemaluan lelaki, burung vulagr, titit (children’s slang like “pee-pee”), kontol (slang, vulgar)

percent

peratus

persen, per seratus

pharmacy

farmasi

apotek (from Dutch apotheek), farmasi -usually for medicine manufacturers

photograph

gambar, foto

foto, potret (from Dutch, means “portrait” in English)

pickpocketnoun

penyeluk saku

copet (contraction of colong dompet- wallet thief), pencopet

pirate (maritime)

lanun

bajak laut, perompak (means “robber” in Malay)

platform (train)

platform

peron (from Franco-Dutch perron)

Poland

Poland

Polandia

police

polis

polisi (from Dutch politie)

post code

poskod

kode pos

prayer (Islam)

solat, sembahyang

salat, shalat, sholat (from Arabic, ‘sh’ is usually pronounced as ‘s’)

prayer room (Islam)

surau

surau, musala, mushollah (from Arabic, ‘sh’ is usually pronounced as ‘s’)

pregnant

mengandung, hamil (formal, from Arabic ), berbadan dua

mengandung, hamil (less formal), bunting (informal)

press

surat khabar (see above)

pres (from Dutch), surat kabar, media massa

Private Limited Company

Sendirian Berhad

abbreviated as Sdn Bhd (suffix)

Perseroan Terbatas

abbreviated as PT(prefix)

prostitute

pelacur

pelacur, WTS (pronounced ‘way-tay-es’; wanita tuna susila “moral-less women”, Sanskrit), PSK (formal, pronounced ‘pay-es-ka’, pekerja seks komersial (commercial sex workers))

province

wilayah(used in Indonesian to mean ‘region’) , daerah

propinsi, provinsi (from Dutch provincie)

push, to (door)

tolak (used less primarily in Indonesian to mean ‘subtract’, it also means ‘to refuse/reject’, also common meaning in Malay when used in arithmetics)

dorong (means “to push” in Malay, but often used to mean “to support”)

raspberry

rasberi

frambus or frambosen (from Dutch framboos)

receipt

resit, penerimaan

kwitansi (from Dutch kwitantie)

refrigerator

peti sejuk (rarely used in Indonesian)

lemari es, lemari pendingin, kulkas (from Dutch koelkast)

restaurant

kedai makan, restoran

restoran, rumah makan, kedai makan(rarely used now)

rob

rompak (Indonesian for “to commit piracy”)

rampok, rampas

room

bilik (usually used to mean “compartment” in Indonesian), kamar(formal)

kamar

from Dutch “kamer” (chamber), ruang (Javanese)- for storage areas etc

roundabout (traffic)

bulatan

e.g. Bulatan DBP in Kuala Lumpur

pusing keliling (in Brunei)

bundaran

i.e. Bundaran HI in Jakarta

sauce

sos

saos, saus (ultimately from French sauce)

school (Islamic)

pondok

pesantren, pondok pesantren

science

sains

sains, ilmu (Javanese for knowledge), iptek (an acronym for “Ilmu Pengetahuan dan Teknologi”, which literally means “science and technology”)

Scotland

Scotland

Skotlandia

secret

rahsia

rahasia

session

sesyen

kursus, pembahasan

sewer

saluran najis, saluran kumbahan

got, selokan, parit (means ‘ditch’ in Malay), saluran air/pembuangan

shampoo

syampu (from Anglo-Indian / Hindustani chmpo, the imperative form of (Hindi) chmpn ‘to smear, knead the muscles, massage’)

sampo (via Dutch)

shirt

baju

hem, kaos, kemeja( from Portuguese camisa )

shoe

kasut

sepatu ( understood but less frequently used in Malaysia, from Portuguese sapato )

shop

kedai (less common in Indonesia)

toko

Slovakia

Slovakia

Slowakia

soya beans

kacang soya

kacang kedelsi

speak/talk

berbicara, bercakap (means ‘to chat’ in Indonesian), bersembang, berborak

berbicara, ngomong (Javanese ngoko from mengomong)

Spain

Sepanyol

Spanyol

spoon

sudu

sendok

sport

sukan

olahraga (means “athletics” in Sanskrit)

station

stesen

stasiun (formerly spelled “setasiun”)

state within country

negeri

negarabagian

stop (verb)

berhenti

stop, berhenti

strawberry

strawberi

stroberi or arbei – from Dutch aardbei

stupid

bodoh, bengap, tolol, bongok (slang)

bodoh, dungu, tolol, goblok (slang), geblek (slang), bego (slang)

Sunday

Ahad

- rarely used in Indonesia

Minggu

- from Portuguese Domingo (Lord’s Day)

(means “week” in Malay and Indonesia too)

Sweden

Sweden

Swedia

Switzerland

Switzerland

Swiss

tap water

air paip

air keran, air ledeng (“ledeng” also means “plumbing”) (from Dutch leiding)

teacher

cikgu, guru

guru (from Sanskrit)

teacher (religious, Islam)

ustaz ustad (ultimately from Persian )

ustad (ultimately from Persian)

telephone

telefon

telepon, telpon, telfon (internationalism)

terrorist

pengganas

teroris (from Franco-Dutch terrorist)

testicles

buah zakar, testis, buah keranjut

alat kelamin laki-laki, biji kemaluan , buah zakar (slang, vulgar), kanjut (slang, vulgar)

traffic jam

kesesakan lalulintas, jam (slang)

macet

turn

pusing (means ‘dizzy’ in Indonesian), belok

belok, puter

tapioca

ubi kayu

singkong, ubi kayu, ketela pohon, tapioka

taxi

teksi

taksi (internationalism)

television

televisyen, TV

televisi (from Dutch televisie), (also TV, pronounced ‘tee-vee’ or ‘te-fe’)

toilet

bilik air, tandas

kamar kecil, toilet, WC (pronounced ‘we-se’) for watercloset.

Thailand

Negara Thai, Siam, Thailand

Thailand, Siam, Muangthai used in old scripts

ticket

tiket

tiket, karcis (from Dutch kaartje)

tyre

tayar

ban (from Dutch “[auto]band”)

train

keretapi, tren

kereta (api/listrik) sepor (Javanese from Dutch “Spoor”)

transsexual

pondan, bapok, transseksual

bencong, banci, waria (polite), transseksual

tree

pokok, pohon

pohon

ugly

hodoh, buruk

jelek

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraina

uncle

pakcik

oom or om (derived from Dutch, pronounced and sometimes spelt as “oom”), paman, uwak, Pak Lik or Pak De (Javanese)

university

universiti

universitas

until

sehingga, sampai

hingga, sampai

USA

Amerika Syarikat

Amerika Serikat (AS)

vagina

faraj (from Arabic, in Indonesian means vulva), pepek/pepet (slang)

alat kelamin wanita (female genitals), liang pernakan, vagina: farji, memek, pepek (slang, vulgar)

very

sangat, amat, sekali

sangat, amat, sekali, banget(Javanese ngoko)

vice president

naib presiden

wakil presiden (‘wapres’)

virgin

(anak)dara, (anak) gadis

perawan (formal), gadis, (anak) dara

voucher

baucer

vocer

website

laman web

situs web

weekend

hujung minggu

akhir pekan, akhir minggu

when

bila, apabila

kapan, bilamana, bila, ketika

window

tingkap (also used in Indonesian but less common), jendela

jendela – from Portuguese janela

wire

dawai, wayar

kawat, dawai

you

anda (very formal), awak, kamu, kau

Anda (everyday formal), kamu (for very familiar people only), engkau &’kau (prose): elu/loe (very vulgar Betawi slang), delo

zoo

zoo, taman haiwan

kebun binatang (derived from Dutch dierentuin (animal garden). Beside “taman haiwan”, kebun binatang was also frequently used in Malaysia before the mid-sixties)

False friends

Besides vocabulary differences, there are also a number of false friends in both languages. As these words are in quite common use in either or both of the languages, misunderstandings can arise.

Word

Malay meaning

Indonesian meaning

ahli

a member (of a group)

(when the word is used by itself) (from Arabo-Persian “ahli” ‘belonging to a group, people, indigenous or sim.’),

expert in a field (from Arabo-Persian “‘aqli” ‘belonging to the intellect or mind, intellectual’)

expert in a field

akta (from Latino-Dutch acta)

act (= law)

act (= written legal document)

awak

you (polite way)

shipper

baja

fertilizer

steel

Malaysian: besi waja

banci

census

effeminate, transvestite homosexual

bandar

city

port

belanja

to treat, giving something for free

to shop

berbual

to chat

to tell a lie

bercinta

love

make love, have sexual intercourse

beredar

oscillating (planets only), asked to go home

distributed

biji

pill, tablet

seed, testicles (“balls”, offensive)

bisa

venom

can/able (same as “boleh” in Malay), venom

bontot/buntut

buttock

tail (‘ekor’ as commonly used in Malay)

budak

kid

slave

butoh/butuh

male genitals, an offensive reference

need

calon

nominee

nominee, victim

comel

cute, pretty

(to call) someone who can not keep a secret (example: mulutnya comel= her mouth can’t keep a secret)

duduk

a place to live on, and also: to sit

to sit

email

electronic mail (recently changed to “emel”)

enamel

gampang

bastard

from ‘anak gampang’ lit. easy child

easy (non negative meaning)

gubuk gila

psychiatric hospital

crazy/insane house

jabatan

department

position

jawatan

position

department

jemput

invite

pick up

jeruk

pickles/preserved fruits or vegetables

oranges

jimat

pennywise, save money or something e.g. electricity

amulet (the Malaysian equivalent is azimat)

kacak

handsome

ber-kacak pinggang (stands with hands on your hips)

The Malaysian equivalent is bercekak-pinggang, a phrase to mean that a person is being bossy

kakitangan

employee

member of mafia/criminal organisation

kapan

or kafan: Muslim burial shroud (kain kafan/kapan)

when (kapan mau pulang?= when do you want to go home?)

karya

work of art (karyawan=artists)

work (karyawan= workers)

kerajaan

government

(historical association, most Malay states were governed by monarchs, from Raja = King, now refers to any kind of government)

kingdom

keranjang

‘bola keranjang’ = basketball (no other use than for basketball)

basket

kereta

car

train

khidmat

service

fully concentrate

koneksi

dick (vulgar)

connection

konfeksi

confection, sweets

clothing industry, any fancy or luxurious woman’s clothings

(Dutch: confectie. A non-standard spelling sometimes used is: “konveksi”)

lucu

funny

cute (sometimes can be used as ‘funny’ too)

operasi

mathematic operational symbol, police operation

operation/surgery (as in Dutch)

pajak

to mortgage

tax

paket

packet

package (normally used for promotion purposes, as in Dutch)

pantas

speedily

‘no wonder’

pantat

vagina/pussy (vulgar)

buttock

pelan

plan

(associated with architectural work, site map etc only)

slow (perlahan in Malay)

pejabat

office

officer/officials

(those who hold office, Malay (pegawai)

pemerintah

ruler

government

pengajian

education

mass recitation of Quran

percuma

free of charge

useless, not needed

peti sejuk

refrigerator

cold Coffin

pijat

bugs

(software bugs i.e. Year 2000 bug and also commonly referring to the bed bugs)

massage

Javanese pijet

polis

police

(insurance) policy (as in Dutch)

polisi

policy

police (as in Dutch)

punggung

buttock

back

pupuk

to nurture

fertilizer (also means ‘to nurture’ in the metaphorical sense of the word)

pusing

to go around a place, circular in motion, to spin/rotate

dizzy, confused, headache

putera

prince

son

rambut

hair (for head only)

hair

tambang

fare

mine, rope

tandas

toilet

to explain, to finish

senang

easy

happy, relax

sulit

confidential, difficult

difficult

wakil

representative

vice (for example, ‘vice chancellor’ and ‘vice president’), representative

Sample

Indonesian text sample

Ensiklopedia, atau kadangkala dieja sebagai ensiklopedi, adalah sejumlah buku yang berisi penjelasan mengenai setiap cabang ilmu pengetahuan yang tersusun menurut abjad atau menurut kategori secara singkat dan padat.

Kata ‘ensiklopedia’ diambil dari bahasa Yunani; enkyklios paideia ( ) yang berarti kumpulan instruksi atau pengajaran yang lengkap. Maksudnya, ensiklopedia adalah sebuah sarana pendidikan lengkap yang mencakup semua bidang ilmu pengetahuan. Seringkali ensiklopedia disalahartikan sebagai kamus. Hal ini disebabkan karena ensiklopedia-ensiklopedia awal memang berkembang dari kamus-kamus.

Malay text sample

Ensiklopedia, atau kadangkala dieja sebagai ensaiklopedia, merupakan koleksi maklumat atau himpunan fakta mengenai setiap cabang ilmu pengetahuan yang tersusun menurut abjad atau menurut kategori secara singkat dan padat.

Kata ‘ensiklopedia’ diambil daripada bahasa Yunani , egkyklios paideia (a circle of instruction) yang bererti sebuah lingkaran atau pengajaran yang lengkap. Ini bermaksud ensiklopedia itu merupakan sebuah pendidikan sempurna yang merangkumi semua aspek ilmu pengetahuan. Seringkali ensiklopedia disalahertikan sebagai kamus. Mungkin ini kerana ensiklopedia-ensiklopedia awal memang berkembang daripada kamus.

Translation

Encyclopaedia, or occasionally spelt as ensiklopedi/ensaiklopedia, is a collection of books containing explanations about all branches of science that are compiled according to the alphabet or according to the category briefly and densely.

The word ‘encyclopaedia’ is taken from Greek enkyklios paideia ( ), which means a circle of instructions or a complete teaching. It means that the encyclopaedia is a complete educational material that includes all science aspects. Often encyclopaedias are confused with dictionaries. One reason is that early encyclopaedias were actually developed from dictionaries.

Convergence of vocabulary

The Malay language in Malaysia is not pervasively used in all spheres of life compared to Indonesia. Competition from the English language, the emotional attachment of Malaysian Malays to the language and the desire by non-Malays to preserve the use of their mother tongues are probably the reasons for this state of affairs. As a result, the Malay language in Malaysia is not as dynamic as the Indonesian language in the introduction of new words through adaptation from other languages especially English. Many Malays are adverse to the ‘Malay-ing’ of English words. They rather prefer to find obscure Malay words or words from the Malay archipelago that are equivalent to the English term. For example, the English word ‘plaster’ or stucco would have been easily Malayised both in terms of pronunciation and common usage. However the word ‘lepa’ (spread) is used instead. Many new words introduced in Malay are taken from Indonesian due to this preference. For example, the word canggih (complicated) is a Javanese word that is used for translating ‘sophisticated’ to denote a higher status meaning (as in a sophisticated lady) instead of the Malay equivalent of ‘rumit’ (complicated). These words are usually adopted some ten years after their popular use in the Indonesian media.

Trivia

During the May 1998 Revolution, when calls for political reform or reformasi in Indonesia led to the resignation of President Suharto, Malaysian satirists Instant Cafe lampooned a government broadcast in which “Malaysians are reminded that reformasi is an Indonesian word, which has no equivalent in Bahasa Melayu.”

References

^ From the article about Encyclopaedia on the Indonesian Wikipedia, version 15:14, 21 Agustus 2006

^ From the article about Encyclopaedia on the Malay Wikipedia, version 21:41, 5 Oktober 2005

External links

The Malay Spelling Reform, Asmah Haji Omar, (Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society, 1989-2 pp. 913 later designated J11)

The MALAY LANGUAGE in MALAYSIA and INDONESIA: from lingua franca to national language Asmah Haji Omar article in The Asianists’ ASIA

Categories: Indonesian language | Malay language | Language comparison | False friendsHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from April 2007 | Articles containing Ancient Greek language text | Articles lacking in-text citations from April 2009 | All articles lacking in-text citations


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