Archive for the ‘Sports Fan Footwear’ Category

Boston Red Sox Flip Flops

Tuesday, May 10th, 2011

Take this survey please?

pepsi / coke
cat / dog
baseball / softball
basketball / football
soccer / lacrosse
junk food / healthy food
lover / fighter
hockey / ice skating
mcdonalds / burger king / wendys
tiger / lion
rain / snow
summer / winter
water park / amusement park
fruits / vegetables
New York Yankees / Boston Red Sox
Boston Celtics / Phoenix Suns
Pittsburgh Steelers / Buffalo Bills
Buffalo Sabres / Boston Bruins
sidney crosby / wayne gretzky
derek jeter / david ortiz
ipod / mps player
mom / dad
pizza / chicken wings
men / women
green / yellow
brett favre / terry bradshaw
shot at love with tila tequila / i love new york
flavor flav / rock of love
thats amore / america’s next top model
america’s best dance crew / american idol
survivor / big brother
sandals / flip flops
shoes / sneakers
cold / warm
hot tub / swimming pool
was this fun?

coke
dog
baseball
both
soccer
both
lover
ice skating
BK and McDonalds
both
rain
summer
both
both
NY Yankees
none
none
none
none
Derek Jeter
both
both
men
green
none
i love new york
rock of love
america’s next top model
america’s best new dance crew
none
both
both
warm
both
kinda =]


Vineyard Vines MLB Boston Red Sox Flip Flops


Vineyard Vines MLB Boston Red Sox Flip Flops


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Sterling Silver BOSTON RED SOX B FLIP FLOP 1


Sterling Silver BOSTON RED SOX B FLIP FLOP 1


$38.00


Enjoy this official MLB licensed Boston Red Sox pendant. A great gift for any Boston Red Sox fan!Express your team pride with jewelry items from LogoArt®.PendantSize: 1″Sterling silver finishExpress your team pride with jewelry from LogoArt®. LogoArt® pendants are available in 14KT and 10KT gold, sterling silver and gold plated sterling silver. The precise detail of your favorite team’s logo is…

Boston Red Sox MLB Contoured Flip Flop Sandals


Boston Red Sox MLB Contoured Flip Flop Sandals



Display your team pride next time you sit poolside or lounge at the beach with these team logo flip flop sandals from Forever Collectibles. Features screen printed team logo and embroidered team name on the straps so you can show off your favorite team with every step! The lower portion of the sandal is made of 100% EVA and the straps are 100% polyester. Officially licensed. Men’s Size Scale: Sma…


Boston Red Sox Womens Flip Flop Thong Slippers


Boston Red Sox Womens Flip Flop Thong Slippers


$30.80


Boston Red Sox – Forever Collectibles Womens Slippers – Boston Red Sox Womens Flip Flop Thong Slippers – Item: SLPFFMBTHGBRS…

Boston Red Sox MLB Flip Flop Thong Slippers


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$35.00


Boston Red Sox – Forever Collectibles MLB Team Slippers – Boston Red Sox MLB Flip Flop Thong Slippers – Item: SLPFFMBTHGBR…

Boston Red Sox MLB Unisex Big Logo Flip Flops


Boston Red Sox MLB Unisex Big Logo Flip Flops


$21.00


Boston Red Sox – Forever Collectibles MLB Flip Flops – Boston Red Sox MLB Unisex Big Logo Flip Flops – Item: FFUNIMLB-BRS…

Oakland Raiders Women’s Her Cheer Top

Saturday, March 26th, 2011

Affordable Raiders Tickets

The prime reason why Raiders tickets are hard to find is because they are highly anticipated on every football event. Men, women and even kids are fond of watching the Oakland Raiders because of their intensity in the field. Win or lose, the team always puts a good fight and always try to please the people in the stadium to give back their money’s worth.Another thing that puts the Oakland Raiders on top of other teams in the National Football League is their determination and the sheer tenacity to win against all odds. They are putting everything on the line on every game and every event. That is what made them so special, that’s what made the Raiders the crowd’s apple of the eye. In fact, they are among the greatest teams ever played in the League.

The Oakland Raiders hold a stunning record of three Super Bowl wins, four Conference title wins and fifteen Division titles. Believed as one of the best teams in the National Football League, the Raiders made it big and got affiliated with the American Football Conference and the AFC West. The huge McAfee Coliseum caters thousands of fans for the team every season.

For the fact that the team is highly anticipated in the current League, Raider tickets are being offered worldwide for the benefit of all who wants to be in the field cheering for them.If you don’t have spare time to visit ticketing outlets, Raiders tickets can also be bought online.

When trying to purchase Raiders tickets online, be sure that you are using a trusted website, authorized by National Football League to sell and distribute authentic tickets. Always read testimonials and research the site where you’re about to buy the ticket from. Also get referrals from friends and other football enthusiasts to be sure that your not buying from a scam site.

With a record to improve, a legacy to prove and another season to exhibit their skills in the field, expect the Raiders to play all out. Fans and supporters will be enjoying like never before as the team will likely to give what you definitely expect. Buy your Raiders tickets today and enjoy football action live at the McAfee Coliseum!

New York Mets Slippers

Saturday, February 12th, 2011

Sociology of Mental Illness: the Study of the Un-institutionalized Mentally Challenged in Abeokuta, Ogun State. Nigeria

Sociology of Mental Illness: The Study of the Un-institutionalized Mentally Challenged in Abeokuta, Ogun State. Nigeria

BY

DR. J. O. SHOPEJU*; DR. C. A. ONIFADE* AND DR. A. DIPEOLU**

[email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]

*DEPARTMENT OF GENERAL STUDIES

UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE

ABEOKUTA

**DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE

ABEOKUTA

CONTACT: E-mail address: [email protected]

Mobile phone 08037125917

Sociology of Mental Illness: The Study of the Un-institutionalized Mentally Challenged in Abeokuta, Ogun State. Nigeria

The focus of this paper is on the poor/economically disadvantaged, non-institutionalized and socially classified as mentally challenged (or considered to be mad) people who roam the streets of Abeokuta, the capital of Ogun State, Nigeria. It attempts to address the issue of mental illness as a social construction. It is felt that the ability of these people to survive without formal care, should be a source of study that will assist in shedding some light into the problems confronting several individuals and groups within the society. For example, if we consider the fact that majority of these people live as isolated selves, it will focus our minds into the need to understand, appreciate, and come to terms with the fact that, as Erickson (2001) says, “. . ..the inability of some people to come to terms with their own isolated selves is counter-pointed by their inability to relate with others on interpersonal one-to-one basis.” The point is that many of these people took off at one time or the other from societies, which exerted pressure on them to tow the line of social expectations. These expectations, as defined by the social institutions (religion, family, economic, political — both the civilian and military, and education), govern their lives and also serve as the support system, and that it is the failure of the same system to continue to provide the so much needed support that has assisted in boxing them into a corner and thereby severing them from the existing conventional social relationships. It is also felt that with better understanding of the underlying factors influencing the behaviours and the lives of these people, and with a little assistance from the rest of us, they would cope better with some of the problems confronting them. In short, we feel strongly and agree with the view of Carol Gill, a Ph. D. holder, wheelchair user and co-organizer “Bioethics Symposium” who expressed the view that “we should be examining the barriers society has erected that demoralize people to the point that they find it too difficult to live with their disability, when the focus should be on our inability to muster the resources they need to live” (Nugent, 2005).

Literature Review

The more one reads about mental illness, sees or interacts with some of the mentally challenged, or those whom society considers as mentally ill, the more the question about the reality of the problem comes to the mind. Also the more the question crops up the harder it is to arrive at a conclusion regarding what mental illness really is. An attempt to define mental illness helps to expose the ambiguity and the futility involved. This fact guided the thought of Mechanic (1980) in his book, “Mental Health and Social Policy.” For example, Webster’s Third New International dictionary defines insanity as, “such unsoundness of mind or lack of understanding as prevents one from having a mental capacity to enter into a particular relationship, status or transaction or as excuses one from criminal and civil responsibilities.” One can infer from this definition that the law has been assigned the role of determining what behaviours and who fits into this category. Of course, the law is manmade and influenced by the types of behaviours identified, compiled and classified as “unsoundness of mind or lack of understanding.” In short, the law can only ruminate on what is already in existence. Thus, the law in response to the evidence adduced before fits them into this predetermined categories. The point here is that the law, is culturally determined by the society or the social structure. That is, the social structure, in one way or the other determines who is mentally ill, cured, and who should continue to bear the label. Another question is how does the law conclude that one person is sane while the other is not? This point needs some clarification. That the social structure determines what falls into the category of mental illness is a source of concern because it introduces subjectivity into the meaning, definition and interpretation given to the “behaviours” in question. Let us assume that people within the social structure know what the normal behaviours that are expected of their members are. We can garner this from the fact that we all operate within the boundary of the “assumptive world.” The concept “assumptive world” relates to the fact that our behaviours are continuously being evaluated by others and by ourselves – relative to others. That means that the reactions (real or perceived) of the people to our behaviour(s) will determine/influence how we feel about ourselves, the nature of the world around us, our ability to predict what to expect from others and the resultant effect of our actions (Frank, 1974:27-29). The factor that should be noted is that the assumptive world varies and depends on the culture. For example, it is assumed that shoes are to be worn on the feet, not on the palms. Again, the type of shoes worn depends on the setting — bathroom slippers (depending on the social class) are not expected to be worn to formal functions. Eye contact should be made while discussing with somebody not for one to continue to stare at the other’s ears — the Yoruba culture makes a further restriction, it does not expect a child to maintain eye contact with an adult. This shows that even though these norms are not codified or written into law, they exist and people through socialization are expected to acquire/learn them in conjunction with the appropriate cues. In fact, most of the times we do not know that some of them exist until we have violated them – but we are always prepared to make appropriate amends. Despite this, we are subjected to and we subject ourselves to the reactions of others as to whether our behaviours are positively or negatively responded to. A positive reaction could mean that the behaviour is acceptable within the context in which it occurs and we can thus afford to repeat it. For instance, in some churches, a spiritualist who goes into trance while devouring the wrong doings of others, or while claiming to have seen God if praised for the revelations made is apt to repeat the behaviour following the prescribed cue. However with the interpretation of the Bible today, particularly by the Pentecostal Churches, such persons could be ostracized or marked out for deliverance — for according to this faith or new interpretation, no human being (because of sin) can ever see God but could see His son Jesus Christ. Also, going into trance is not the order of the day but speaking in tongue is the current norm. This being the case, it becomes risky or too expensive of behaviour for any member to repeat the unmerited. The above reinforces the view that a particular behavior in different setting will elicit different reactions and responses from people as dictated by cultural interpretations, definitions and understanding (Frank, 1974; Mechanic, 1980; Henslin, 2002). These definitions and responses are also influenced by factors such as the person involved his/her personality, and the where and when of the behaviour. A good example is an incident that occurred while a hungry Nigerian musician who was in a foreign country was “bowling” down some “akpu/fufu” (a Nigerian meal made from cassava) at a station. Somebody called the police claiming that a Blackman was trying to commit suicide. In summary, all of the above reactions exert influence on the actors and the observers and the decision as to whether to continue with the specified behaviour or not. The key factor is for the person to know the cues and to respond appropriately, else, it draws unwanted attention.

Mental illness is a concept that is very intriguing to study. This supposedly bizarre behaviour has always been of interest and concern to people. For example, during the pre-industrial times, in Europe, the “mentally ill” were professed to be afflicted by demons (Szasz, 1961; Conrad and Schneider, 1980) and therefore to save society, they were burnt or starved to death. Today, the view is much different. Post-industrial revolution produced some people who say that it is the disease of the mind (in the head) caused by sin and as retribution for sin (Ackerknecht, 1968). In the Chinese society it is believed that all diseases are caused by an imbalance of two forces Yin and Yang. These two forces based on supernatural conceptions, represent good/bad, positive/negative, male/female, the moon and the sun. Therefore, an imbalance between the two forces results when people deviate from the “Tao” or the “way.” Tao is regarded as the ethical superstructure which provides for all eventualities in life and for all essential types of interpersonal relationships (Veith, 1955; Sidel, 1975). Thus in this culture, the afflicted is removed from the cause/source of the problem and as such is not held responsible for any behaviour committed while mentally ill.

Just like in the Chinese culture, the Nigerians perceive mental illness as resulting from a person’s misalignment with the social system. Thus the illness is seen as punishment from the gods or supernatural beings, witches and evil people. In the ancient times, the mentally ill, when not ignored, were usually taken care of (sheltered or exorcised) by traditional medicine men, priests and spiritual healers. The etiology of mental illness for the Nigerian can be summarized as: evil spells and witches, failure to adhere to the cultural taboo, action or inaction of the person if considered offensive by the gods, inheritance, natural causes or physical illness, drugs e.g. marijuana or Indian hemp and environmental factor e.g. adversity.

According to Sow (1980), fewer cases of chronic mental disorder occur in the rural-non-literate group than among the urban-literate group. This is attributed to the fact that family/kinship bond which serves as an important ameliorator of socioeconomic and psychological conditions of rural Nigerians is weaker or impossible in the urban areas (Sow, 1980; Asuni, 1968).

Two different approaches, the traditional and the orthodox (western), are used to control mental illness in Nigeria. The choice of approach depends on the belief system of the users. The major difference between these approaches lies in their belief as to the etiology of mental illnesses and diseases in general. The traditional approach is the “medical” practice which existed among the people of Nigeria before they had European contact. Some form of spiritual healing can also be grouped under this approach. Common to virtually all the religions is the power of the spoken words whether in form of incantations, orders to the spirit to leave their patients, spells, exorcism, prayers or penitential formulas asking the forgiveness of the offended deity. Often this is accompanied by rituals, ritualistic movements and dances. Other therapeutic measures include application of drugs of plant or animal origin (as it is believed that they work in accord) often prepared according to secret formulas to cure the patients. Some traditional healers restrain their patients by tying them with ropes or chains in extremely unhealthy conditions. The orthodox (western) approach to mental illness in Nigeria follows the western medical model by locating the causes of mental illness in natural factors such as somatic organs, nervous systems or stressful situations (Erinosho, 1979). The early belief that some people develop psychological problems due to the use of Indian hemp and other psychoactive drugs (Lambo, 1981), is still being strongly adhered to. The method of treatment employed today has tilted more toward psychotherapy and drug therapy while shock treatment and psychosurgery seem to be of the past. There are evidences to show that asylums existed in Nigeria, wherein psychoanalytically-oriented methods were used (Erinosho, 1979; Laosebikan, 1973; Lambo, 1963; Shopeju, 1983). However, the general types of care facilities available today are located in the neuro-psychiatric hospitals, with both in and outpatient facilities. In addition, psychiatric facilities are also available in various university teaching hospitals throughout the nation.

In recent years, medicine has succeeded in bracketing mental illness into one of its areas of specialization — psychiatry (Szasz, 1961; Conrad and Schneider, 1980; Henslin; 2002). Unfortunately, while there is no doubt that some behavioural disorders can be controlled with drugs (Lickey and Gordon, 1983:75-104) psychiatry has not been able to come up with unquestionable definitions, and very successful methods/cure to prove its expertise on this subject (Szasz, 1961; Scheff 1974; Henslin, 2002). The mystery which mental illness presents is further revealed by the fact that mental health professionals do not always agree as to what the definition is. For example, the psychiatrist, psychiatric social worker, clinical psychologist, and other mental health professionals define it differently. While not denying the fact that some iota of consensus occurs across some professions (for example, there is an approved and certified diagnostic manual for mental illness), the idea is that one would have felt more convinced if the difference in diagnosis can be narrower. Further flaws in psychiatric definitions were revealed by the Rosenhan experiment. The experimenter had referred some sane people to mental health experts for diagnosis, they were all diagnosed “insane” (Rosenhan, 1973). Another concern is in the area of over-diagnosis and consequently over-prescription of drugs (Diller, 2006; Eisenberg, 2007). In fact, some psychiatrists admit that little is known about mental illness and some like Szasz (1961; 1996; 1998) do not agree that it exists. Rather it is believed that there are some people who have difficulty in living and that such behaviour should be called “problem behaviour” not mental illness, insanity or other self serving labels. The summary of the above is that the definition of mental illness is socially constructed depending on, the political, economic and social inclination or conception of reality and the resultant effect of unsuccessful socialization (Berger and Luckmann, 1967: 165-166).

One is tempted to suggest that the definition of mental illness should include input from those who are classified as mentally ill. However, the definition so attained will also have its flaws. If we accept the social learning/societal-reaction perspectives, the definitions arrived at will be influenced by their conception of reality and the stereotyped views of mental illness these people have learned (Scheff, 1974; Yarrow, et al, 1968), and those arising from stigma based on social definitions (Berger and Luckmann, 1967:165-166). This is reflected in that the observation of these people in Nigeria shows that they do not seem to have difficulty understanding or speaking the local languages (Pidgin English or Yoruba). They also behave in the ways people around them expect them to behave. The following illustrations serve to make the point clearer. Ajisoro, a supposedly madman, decided to show his displeasure by hauling missiles at his tormentors, unfortunately, he hit and broke the windshield of a parked car. The mob descended on him and gave him a thorough beating, had he not taken to his heel yelling (in Yoruba) “mo gbe o” (meaning I am in serious trouble), he probably would have been lynched. Another case is about a man who feigned madness to escape the wrought of vigilante groups. The man had arrived very late (1.30 A.M.) from Lagos and knowing fully well that there was no way any sane person would be allowed to walk the streets during that period, decided to strip leaving only his underpants on. He proceeded on his way carrying his clothes neatly folded on his head, continued to talk loudly and incorrigibly as he proceeded. According to him, none of the several vigilante groups that he met showed interest in him. Of interest is that even one of his neighbours, in one of the groups, only stared at him without saying a word. On getting home, the actor, after dressing up, sat on the pavement in front of his house. About thirty minutes later, he received the vigilante neighbour as visitor. The visitor expressed his amazement at the actor’s behaviour but agreed that he would not have been able to assist him had he appeared as a sane person. In short, the visitor only wanted to affirm if his neighbour had really manifested the expected behaviour as socially defined for the insane. Worthy of note is that nobody noticed that his clothes were neatly folded and balanced on his head for it is only a mad or “harmless” person would break the curfew. This further shows that the social structure creates and encourages people to act the way it deems fit for varying social, cultural, political and economic situations while also taking into cognizance the statuses of the actors. Also implied is that people are generally judged against the backdrop of behaviours that are already in existence and that are considered to be normal, abnormal or bizarre. In short, all types of behaviours have antecedents for the sane and those classified as mentally ill or insane and that the social structure carves out our reality world and we cannot simply wish it away (Berger and Luckman, 1967:1-3).

The perceived functionality of the behaviour also influences its categorization. For example, we had the opportunity to witness people speaking in “tongues” in some churches. Some had laid flat on the floor on their chests while slapping the ground with their palms and shouting in the name of Jesus”, some rolled on the floor ‘in the name of Jesus”, in other cases, members walked about babbling and singing praise words to the Lord. In the white garment churches, we observed that some designated members go into trance while also prophesying. These people’s behaviours were neither seen as bizarre nor unacceptable, but as socially acceptable under the prevailing circumstances. The major source of differences, however, is in the interpretations we the normal people give to behaviours as influenced by our perception of their functionality. For example, when Alhaja Sheidat Mujidat Adeoye, a female trader in Osun State in the southwestern Nigeria suddenly had a “spiritual” encounter, the initial interpretation of her behaviour was that of the manifestation of insanity. However, today because she was able to manage the behaviour by prophesying and healing people, a behaviour that is directly related to the perceived functionality of the manifestation, Alhaja Adeoye is now highly respected in her community. She is now a Muslim missioner, spiritual healer, leader and founder of a religious group called “Fallullah Muslim Mission” in Osogbo community in Osun State, Nigeria (Ogungbile, 2004).

Methodology

This paper results from approximately several years of observing and studying the mentally challenged people who have been labeled “mad”, insane or mentally ill. The study also involved having discussions with the “sane” as a way of getting more information about the targeted group. Despite the fact that inquiring about these people usually elicited some kind of curious gaze and expressions from those questioned, our informers were aware of the purpose of our inquiries. Surprisingly, respondents seem to know almost all the mentally challenged people roaming the streets of Abeokuta. For example, discussions by one of the researchers in a beer parlor, patronized by taxi drivers, mechanics, welders etc, were revealing. We were informed that Casa was deported from a foreign university, when he developed mental problems and Talia was the female beer parlour owner’s primary schoolmate and childhood neighbour. Please not that all the names used are fictitious invented for the purpose of this study and cannot be traced to the participants.

A seven item questionnaire which served as the instrument (henceforth referred to as guide instrument) for selecting the subjects for this study was administered to twenty randomly selected university students. The area of focus is Abeokuta, the state capital of Ogun State, in the southwestern (Yoruba speaking) area of Nigeria. By virtue of the fact that these people roam the streets, it is assumed that they are either from very poor or what we have chosen to call “economically challenged” backgrounds or families and must have been deserted. This assumption is sanctioned by the fact that two public neuro-psychiatric hospitals and a community (out patient) psychiatric centre exist in the state capital which provide both the in and out patient cares for a fee. The normal practice requires that family members or caretakers deposit up to thirty thousand (N30000.00) Naira (or about two hundred and fifty US dollars) to cover boarding and medication for one month. Both the traditional and spiritual healing centres also exist in addition to the Western Orthodox mental health care facilities (Shopeju, 1983). Also and interestingly, the Yoruba people patronize any type of treatment regardless of their origin and cost, the major determining factors are the perceived efficacy of the type and that the sick recovers (Shopeju, 1983) – embedded in this is the hope that the sick will eventually recover from the ailment. As stated earlier, regardless of the approach chosen, treatment or care requires some financial commitment and there seem to be no guarantee that there is an end to this and other forms (social and psychological) commitments. Despite the fact that many of them still go home to sleep and some family members monitor and sometimes ensure that they are fed and have clean clothes, some family members expressed their frustration in that caring for these people is time and money consuming and traumatizing. Based on the above we are inclined to assume that: (a) the cases have been considered hopeless by their families; (b) they were simply abandoned because their caretakers lacked the funds to start or continue to pay for psychiatric care, whether orthodox or traditional; (c) the families or caretakers lacked the ability and capacity to continue to care for them.

The sample for this study was restricted to twenty-five subjects chosen using the guide instrument from every odd number mentally challenged persons encountered by driving through the major streets. Incidentally, the subjects either seem to prefer frequently used streets or feel less threatened to ply public/commercial sectors (we are inclined to adduce the later as the determining factor). For example, we observed that the residents of housing estates, where the majority of the middle and upper income classes reside, ensure that they (subjects) are discouraged from roaming their streets by physically removing them. In fact, they are often labeled as people who pretend to have mental problems during the day but become agile criminals at night (garnered from the researchers’ experiences at meetings in their neghbourhoods). During the period of the study, three of the subjects disappeared to reappear elsewhere, a search was always conducted and they were replaced only when they could not be located. Three fell into this category. Method of identification of each entailed assigning numbers and fictitious names while also keeping notes with the description of the chosen subjects. The major identification factor is the physical appearance of the subjects. The following coded (0 for low rating and 1 for good/high rating) features were used to determine the suitability of subject for the study:

Stage A:

(1) mode of dressing – dirty/rags=0, clean/not rags=1;

(2) condition of hair- dirty/dreadlocks=0, clean/dressed=1;

(3) footwear- no shoes/not matched shoes=0, matched shoes=1;

(4) general appearance- dirty=0, neat/clean=1.

A person is expected to consistently score an average of below 2 points in ten encounters with the researchers to be finally chosen for the next stage of the selection process. This approach is necessary in that some of them return to their homes (or are forced to return by their relatives), to get refreshed (bath and change their clothes – even with this, many of them do not their clothes often or on daily basis). Also, we need to distinguish those whose jobs do not permit them to wear clean clothes while working such as mechanics, bricklayers and other odd jobbers.

Stage B:

(1) Association: a loner=0, in contact with other people=1

(2) Conversation with other people: nil=0, able to hold coherent discussion=1

(3) bland/far away look=0; aware of the presence of other people=1.

An average of 1 or below qualifies the person for this study. Finally, the “sane” people confirmed the state of the participants.

Periodic visits were made at an interval of three months to establish the stability of the condition of the selected subjects. Chance encounters (with the selected subjects) were also taken into consideration. For example, some stray into petrol stations, drinking joints or parties (particularly open air) and or the markets to beg for money or food. Virtually all the subjects have their routes and meticulously keep to them. The method of observation adopted by the researchers include, (1) sitting in their cars, (2) visits to the markets and beer parlours (male researchers). The latter method provided the opportunity to elicit responses from the “sane” about the subjects and (3) strolling/driving past the subjects’ “homes.”

Gender-wise the sample consists of seventeen males and eight females. Only small number (5 or 20 percent) of the population under study is willing to or is able to speak or interact “reasonably” with other people. Beyond sporadic and mostly expressionless stare at people, they do not seem to notice or perhaps feel disturbed by anybody. This poses problems to the ability to study this category of people using the conventional methods of study, such as the survey, interview and questionnaire participant observation techniques. These methods require that the researcher intrude into the social setting they are attempting to describe and, “they create as well as measure attitudes”. The methods also elicit atypical roles and responses and are limited to those who are accessible and will cooperate, and the responses obtained are produced in part by dimensions of individual differences irrelevant to the topic at hand (Webb et al, 1966:1). Strictly random sampling technique does not also seem to be appropriate for selecting the subjects in that some of the subjects disappear to reappear after some time (the point being made here is that we feel compelled to replace subjects who disappear for more than three weeks). Finally, the focus of this study is more on our perception of these people rather than on how they perceive us.

From the forgoing, it is evident that an unconventional approach is desirable for this type of study – thus, we used the unobtrusive technique. This method allows the researcher to observe people’s behaviour (who in the real sense do not care) without them knowing that they are being studied (Webb et al, 1966; Henslin, 2001; Barbie, 2005). The major advantage of this approach is that it does not require strict physical or verbal interaction between the researcher and the subjects. This method has proved to be most relevant to this study in that, as mentioned earlier, a greater proportion of the sample will neither speak nor react coherently to questions if posed to them. We are mindful of the effects of prolonged discouragement or lack of social interaction with the sane (see Coleman, 2001). Again, since the focus of this study is on our perception of the way of life of the subjects, their survival mechanisms and how the rest of us can better assist them, the method of data collection used does not necessarily call for active participation of or interaction with the subjects. Another factor which gives credence to the use of the unobtrusive technique emanates from the observed reactions of some of the subjects to perceived intrusion into their normal activities. For example, when school children taunt them, they tend to respond violently by chasing the kids or hauling missiles at them. Some tend to proceed into long and incoherent tantrums – Talia (discussed below) falls into this category. Casa, also discussed below, tries the eye contact approach before approaching the “client” he wishes to beg for money from. Sha, or “madam sanitation” who takes shelter at night in front of a local government owned shopping centre (which is also situated opposite a drinking joint), verbally cautions people from urinating in front of the centre. These examples show that any attempt to get their real or natural behaviour must not intrude into their natural settings except we are interested in the reactions to the intrusions. Since our study is about how these people live on a day to day basis, our interests are about how they are able to survive and what can be done to assist them to live better lives under more hygienic and safe conditions.

Ethical issues

Some ethical issues arise regarding the method adopted in this study. For example, is it ethical to draw inferences when the subjects who are also helpless do not know that their actions are being recorded? Is it ethical to elicit information about other people without revealing our mission? The response to the above questions is hinged on (1) the need to get unbiased true life state of the subjects. We are aware that the behaviours of the mentally challenged are often misdiagnosed or misinterpreted, wherein some are labeled as pretenders. Some have been maltreated, subjected to public ridicule or even killed. The condition these people live in is fraught with danger. They have no shelter from harsh weather and harassment from other human beings. There are cases of rape, since some of the mentally challenged females have been impregnated by unknown people, words have it that some have been killed for ritual purposes, (2) our attempt is a honest concern for the plight of these people and is meant to be a channel for revealing this to concerned and philanthropic bodies, the alternative is to continue to behave as if they do not exist and allow them to continue to live in squalor, (3) there is no doubt that these people have been neglected and rejected by the government, nongovernmental organizations and the rest of us. Whether we wish to admit it or not we have contributed to their state of mind through societal rejection and isolation and driven them further into inner minded people. (4) Society has never really been fair or kind to them or reckoned with them. In fact, these people have never been accorded any form of human rights. Even though the last Nigerian census claimed to want to count the mentally challenged, no figure has been released and the purpose was not to provide benefits to these people. In short, the rights of these people have not been guaranteed because nobody has bothered to study them. We also feel our attempt will create the much needed awareness by collecting useful information which we hope will accord them recognition and perhaps help to improve their lot. There is the need to know what the effects of societal rejection have done to these people. Finally, (5) the response which we are reluctant to give is more of questions. Who do we get permission from in order to be able to interact with these people? Is it their families, government or the subjects? Which is worse, complete rejection/abuse of these people by the society or our attempt to understudy them as prelude to understanding them? We prefer the latter.

Observations

There is no doubt that some people are operating in a different “world” from the one we have defined for ourselves, the question looming revolves around whether they are mad, or simply have problems with our interpretations of their lifestyles and as such their ways of communicating with the rest of us. A relatively high proportion (18 or 72%) of the population under study would neither speak nor engage in any meaningful discussion. However, interesting dialogue, as reported here sometimes ensued between the “mentally challenged” and the “sane.” We chose to present these cases because we feel a lot can be garnered about how interaction with the “sane” can aid the mentally challenged.

The scene was an open-air wedding reception. A neatly dressed man (one of our subjects) in an outdated Yoruba “dashiki” and wearing a big gold-like necklace with a large pendant stopped at a table to ask for money (henceforth called Banda). Somebody gave Banda some money and he walked away. It was said that Banda was mad and that he used to be a wealthy tailor and that his wives deserted him after the ailment struck him. Banda was seen some weeks later at about 9.00 P.M. (this was by chance the observer had stopped to purchase some roasted beef called “suya”). Unlike the first time, even though he had the same clothes on, the chain was gone and he looked unkempt. He had stopped to buy a cigarette from a Mallam. He was given his choice of cigarette and he paid for it. The observer was intrigued and wanted to know his next few actions. First, Banda put the filter end of the cigarette between his lips, struck a match with his palm cupped to prevent the wind from blowing out the flame, drew in the smoke, inhaled some and puffed out the rest in a ring. That is not all, he also asked for his change! In reply to the vendors claim that he had no change, he said in Yoruba “ma serekere,” meaning – do not play any pranks. He left only after he had collected the correct change. The third encounter with Banda was one in which he was communicating with an unseen person. He was lying flat on the tarred road with his head and hands raised to the air. All attempts to drive past him without disturbing his state of mind failed as he stood to make way for the approaching car, but returned to the earlier position after the car passed him. This shows that regardless of his state of mind, he had internalized the view that cars can injure, maim or kill. Perhaps this is akin to the instinct which all animals exhibit. (This incident is reminiscent of similar cases of people in church as mentioned earlier). Further observations reveal that Banda sometimes dresses neatly and that with regular guidance he could maintain this behaviour. He still talks to himself and does not have friends.

Casa is another man with special characteristics. He is frequent at a particular petrol station near a university campus. He begs for money to feed himself, (but in the earlier days) no matter how desperate he is, he would not accept money from a woman or if told that it belongs to a woman. When it was observed that he only approaches male drivers we asked our female colleague to offer him money which he refused to accept on several occasions. We also observed that claims that the money offered him belonged to a woman elicited polite refusal to accept the money. He usually retorts with, “no, no, no sir I can’t take the money.” Why? “B-b-b-because it belongs to a woman, —- women are evil, they can harm you.” However, recent observations show that he has shifted from his earlier rigidity — he now accepts a woman’s money only if it is given to him by a man. His new reasoning is that since the money was not in the possession of a woman, at this point in time, that it seizes to belong to her and he is thus free to accept it (a new survival mechanism). As shown, Casa maintains good conversation and explains why he would not interact with women. To him, women are bad and spell nothing but evil and as such, should be avoided at all times. Casa discriminates as to his choice of where to beg for money. For example, he will neither approach any table where a woman is seated nor accept money from there. While driving home one day, one of the researchers noticed the insignia on a commercial vehicle, which reads thus, “BEWARE OF WOMEN.” Judging from this, Casa does not seem to be too far removed from the world of the sane. The difference between the driver and Casa lies in the manifestation of the mental challenges confronting them — while one drives, the other roams the streets. At least all parties nurse some fear about the looming socially defined “danger” women pose to humanity. His changed attitude toward receiving money shows that with help he could behave just like the sane.

Talia is a woman who likes to keep her environment clean even though she always looks unkempt. It is not uncommon to see her carrying a basket that she uses to collect the refuse she had personally swept up. We also observed that she always remembers where the basket is kept. Whenever Talia is agitated, particularly when she feels offended by somebody, she tries to make her case known by complaining to people whether they were listening or not. This tirade could go on for hours. It was however observed that sometimes she listens to appeals from people to calm down. She is well- known in the areas she frequents and seems to recognize many of the people. She also sometimes requests to be allowed to assist people, particularly the elderly, to sweep their premises. Talia’s case reminds us of a typical traditional Yoruba husband, his wife and children going to the farm. Usually, during the harvesting period, all except the man carry a basket with which the day’s proceeds would be carried to the village or town for sale.

Sha or “madam sanitation” is another lady on our list. She is usually over-dressed in that she wears at least two types of dresses at a time. In short, Sha looks overstuffed with clothes. Inquiry shows that she was married and has at least an adult son and that her husband who had lived in another town died recently. She enjoys listening and dancing rhythmically (always with a smile on her face) to music. However, she roams the streets whenever she is not dancing. We were also informed that she is never prevented from sleeping in the family house whenever she wanders into the place. Sha we call “madam sanitation” because she is always cautioning people about urinating in the gutter in front of the shopping centre where she usually spends her night.

After observing the subjects for about a year, we were able to list some common behaviours among these people as follows: (1) they all know how and when to go across the motorways. In short, none of the twenty-five “mentally ill” people “roaming the streets of Abeokuta metropolis that we observed for a duration of the study, ever attempted to cross the motor roads when it was not safe to do so; (2) they also have learnt to walk on the sidewalks (where available) and usually on the foot ways; (3) they generally do not care whether people are looking at them or not; (4) they seem to feed well, since they do not seem to fall sick like “normal” people; (5) they have routine routes that are specific to each of them; (6) they seem to have areas where they reside such as empty/abandoned bus stops, under trees and where they seem not to disturb anybody; (7) they are concerned about public hygiene in that we never once saw any of them defecate in public —in short, they seem to have been toilet trained; (8) they all seem to have been socialized or learnt in the early years that the genital areas should not be exposed. Thus, the males almost always have a piece of cloth tied/wrapped around their waists, while the females ensured that they also cover their chests; (9) none seem to be violent (the violent among the are usually forcefully relocated by community members); (10) each has some “property” (comprising of rags, or a bunch of junks or things we have discarded). The quantity and quality of the property depends on the will of each of them; (11) they can be classified as loners, in that even though they are a part of the crowd, they are at the periphery with each doing his/her “things” without much concern for the rest of us; and finally, (12) some of them show some signs of possible improvement particularly in their interpersonal relationship with people and have devised survival mechanisms. For example, (a) Banda knows the worth of money, when he is about to be cheated and how to fight for himself, (b) Casa will now accept a woman’s money so long as a man is offering it to him, and (c) Talia listens and sometimes calms down when appealed to. In all, beside their bizarreness, they seem to blend well with the masses while also maintaining uniform or patterned ways of life. It should also be mentioned that, just like the rest of us, age seem to be catching up with this set of people. They all show signs of having imbibed aspects of the culture as manifested in their daily behaviours. This is signals the fact that with little assistance and guidance they could be rehabilitated.

Conclusion

Having looked through some of the attempts made as regards the definition of mental illness, (except organic psychosis) and having observed those we have so categorized, we wish to conclude by agreeing with Thomas Szasz as he demonstrates in his writings (1961, 1996, 1998), that we need to find a more appropriate name for mental illness in the sense that we expect this behaviour to be out there and we succeed in getting it, just because we believe in it. We are also inclined to agree with Mechanic (1980:3) that the definition of mental illness in “terms of failures in social adjustment or lack of conformity to social expectations” is an inappropriate definition. While there is no doubt that some people have problems adjusting to certain life conditions. It is not necessarily true that they are mentally ill. Simply put, mental illness as it is generally used does not exist. No organic proof can establish (as there was none in the past) that neurosis and psychosis (except organic psychosis) exist. The confusion arises from the fact that we lack proper understanding of the behaviours and it is simply convenient for us with the assistance of the medical model to classify them as mental illness. For example, let us take a well publicized case. John Hinckley, Jr. planned and shot late former President Reagan and others. He was arrested and tried in court. Despite the fact that psychiatrists testified on both sides, none could cite any organic cause. Each tried to define him as either mentally ill or not based on abstract facts or causes. Yet he was found not to be guilty by reason of insanity for attempted murder. John Hinckley Jr. is still serving time in a mental institution and perhaps, will for the rest of his life. Who dares claim to have healed him when there is no physiological evidence? We do not doubt that medication can be used to control human behaviour and in fact channel the expected behaviour, but we believe that sometimes if left alone, or if the disturbing circumstances or conditions are removed, these people could return to their “normal” behaviour and perhaps the insane are those attempting to change the already labeled. For example, how can we explain the behaviour of the churchgoer who feels unfulfilled but goes haywire? How about the nursing mother of six children whose husband is jobless but yet has to see to the feeding of the children? What is the state of mind of the jobless husband in a male dominated society? Some people device coping mechanisms, such as the pregnant woman, also carrying a baby on her back with a four- year old child toddling along, who smirks this child each time she catches up with her pace while mumbling to herself. Our view is that if succour does not come on time, she could develop a mental breakdown.

Our trips to some Nigerian markets present some revelations. They are mostly populated by women from different occupations, with different facial expressions – some looking frustrated and for different reasons. Some because the car could not contain what they had purchased while for some others, it could be because they lacked enough money to purchase what they would need for their families and others still for overspending. It is indeed a jungle of wishes fulfilled and dashed and expressions waiting to be manifested and interpreted. Yet some are good managers of whatever problems that may confront them, while some simply flip to the other side and perhaps irredeemably. For example, some students choose to cheat in examinations while some develop phobia each time the examinations are around the corner. In summing up our view, it should be mentioned that we were told stories of some people who were insane but who somehow recovered and returned to the world of the sane without any known medication or organized treatment, after all hope had been lost. A well-celebrated case is that of an “insane” woman, who because she was impregnated by and unknown person, won the sympathy of a church. After a few weeks of spiritual “cleansing” and through divine intervention, she became “sane” again and was reunited with her husband who lived in another town and had reported that she was missing some months earlier. Another case is that of a woman who was undergoing treatment for depression. After several failed attempts, her doctor decided to try an alternative to medication. The diagnosis revealed that the woman was under pressure from having to pay the high fees for her (four) children who were attending private schools. After taking to her doctor’s advice by relocating the children to public schools, the depression subsided. In short, what matters is our ability to manage our individual problems while maintaining expected societal standards. Without a doubt, however, it is the opportunity/access to reinforcement from the people around us that makes the difference.

We wish to re-emphasize here that mental illness (as used today) is a human social construction. This construction is vulnerable to change with time, place, and culture (Szasz, 1961) and it depends, also, on who the actor is, how he is perceived, the available opportunities, and of course, the perception of social definitions and self.

We wish to conclude by saying that even though we appear to ignore them, yet we are aware that they are there and we consciously move out of their way. We are constantly accessing them by their behaviours and on that basis, judge and decide how to treat and react to them. If we adjudge them as peaceful or as not encroaching into our space, we usually mind our business but keep reasonable distance. If adjudged violent, we tolerate them to the extent that they do not threaten our existence otherwise we forcefully remove them from the streets. Usually these people seem to have mastered/retained the survival cues and have imbibed the “live and let live” syndrome. This is definitely neither accidental nor instinctual. In short, they only seem to notice us or intrude into our world when there is felt need and they consider us as their only saviours. For example, rather than take our possession such as food, they beg (usually by wordlessly pointing their open palms at us or by gesticulating – acting like somebody putting food into his mouth) for it; they will drink water from any source and help themselves to some of our unwanted clothes and properties. Some will remove cloth banners and use these to cover themselves, others somehow seem to get fed and clothed sometimes by their relatives, while some others barely survive. Only God knows how they manage for they move around like birds whose behaviours are dictated by instinct. Thus, sometimes we see them and at other times they disappear. Despite all, we allow them to roam our streets. Why do they have to be stigmatized and should be classified as mad and not simply as mentally challenged? For example, we refer to some people as the physically challenged and we try very hard to assist them.

Recommendations

As presented above, these people show patterned ways of behaving and seem to have acquired pieces of our normal behaviours. There seem to be a ray of hope that these people can be assisted to live better and conventional lives. One of such organization, “Concerned People International” founded by Mrs. Jumoke Martins, an Evangelist, General Manager of a thriving plant service and a law student, exists in Lagos, Nigeria. Martins started by taking food and clothes to these people. Her earlier fear of the “mad” as violent, unapproachable and unreachable people was allayed as she says, “by the time I got to them, surprisingly, they all received me with warm embrace” (Martin, 2004). Research that is aimed at studying the effect of teaching some of these people how to make a living by making some crafts for sale, is on going. Arising from these observations, it is recommended that a programme be establish to assist those we have classified into this category. The programme should be non institutional but should involve workers who will forge some interactions with them while also presenting them with expected societal models. Further, it is recommended that the providers of assistance should be non-governmental. This suggestion is meant to ensure that clients are treated out of genuine concern for their welfare rather than from the financial gains that may accrue to the workers or helpers.

References

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Asuni, T. 1968. “Vagrant Psychotic in Abeokuta.” In Deuxieme Colloque

Africain de Psychiatric. Dakar, Senegal, 5-9 (Marc) Paris: Audecam

115-123.

Babbie, Earl. 2005. The Basics of Research. Fourth Edition. Belmont, CA:

Thomson Wadsworth.

Berger, Peter L.; Luckmann, Thomas. 1967. The Social Construction of

Reality: A Treatise in Sociology in the Knowledge. New York:Anchor.

Coleman, John R. 2001. “Dairy of a Homeless Man.” In Down to Earth

Sociology. Introductory Readings. Eleventh Edition. Edited by James

M. Henslin. New York: Free Press. Pp 205-217.

Conrad, Peter; Schneider, Joseph W. 1980. Deviance and Medicalization:

From Badness to Sickness. London: Mosby.

Diller, Lawrence H. 2006. The Last Normal Child: Essays on the Intersection

of Kids, Culture, and Psychiatric Drugs. West Point: Praeger.

Eisenberg, Leon. 2007. Book Forum. American Journal of Psychiatry 164:835-

836.

Erickson, Kai. 2001. “Disaster at Buffalo Creek.” In Down to Earth Sociology.

Introductory Readings. Edited by Henslin, James M. New York: free

Press. Pp21 8-229.

Erinosho, O. A. 1979. “The Evolution of Modern Psychiatric Care in Nigeria.”

American Journal of Psychiatry 136:12.

Frank, Jerome. 1974. Persuasion and Healing: A Comparative Study of

Psychotherapy New York: Schocken.

Henslin, James M. 2001. Down-to-Earth Sociology: Introductory Readings.

New York: Free Press.

Henslin, James M. 2002. Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach.

Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

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Martin, Jumoke. 2004. “I Feel Fulfilled Taking Care of Mad People.” Features

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African Conference, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Laosebikan, Supo A. 1973. “Mental Health in Nigeria: The promise of a

Behavioural Approach in Treatment and Rehabilitation.” Journal of

Black Studies 4:2. December.

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Revolution in Psychiatry. New York: Freeman.

Mechanic, David. 1980. Mental Health and Social Policy. Englewood

Cliffs:Prentice Hall.

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Philosophical Library.

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Yoruba (Nigeria) Islam: A Case Study of Alhaja Sheidat Mujidat

Adeoye.” Gender and Behaviour: 2:117-140.

Rosenhan, D. L. 1973. “On Being Sane in Insane Places” Science: 179:250-

258.

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Psychological Meaning of Mental Illness in the Family.” In Deviance.

Edited by Probington and Weinber, pp 31-41.


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Saturday, December 4th, 2010

Super Bowl Online Broadcast – Pittsburgh Steelers vs Green Bay Packers Webcast

The Super Bowl is an American tradition and has pretty much become an icon of what makes this great country what it is. Tens of millions of Americans tune in to their television sets every year to watch this spectacular event.

You can watch the Super Bowl online broadcast at http://www.watchitonlinelive.com/SuperBowl.

Men and women everywhere get together at one house to enjoy the play-offs and yell and cheer every time someone scores. Unfortunately for many people, their work schedules are sometimes so hectic that they cannot get the time off to watch the great event unfold. On the other hand few Americans are ever content enough to let a little thing like work get in the way of something so important. It is to accommodate this very audience that there are now websites available where you have the facility of watching the Super Bowl online live on your personal computer.

Live streaming via the internet directly onto an outlet like personal computers, laptops, Xboxes, Playstations and even mobile telephones is an increasingly popular phenomenon. There are some websites that let you stream programs directly which is fantastic for viewers. The only thing is that you really should do a search several days in advance to determine which website will work best with your computer’s system because with some you can click again and again and nothing will happen because there isn’t compatibility with your system. There is another problem as well; many websites make claims of letting you watch the Super Bowl in great viewing quality but when the program gets going, the picture quality is so poor and so grainy that you have difficulty making out anything at all. In the same way if you are particular about watching it in high definition, then you will have to check beforehand whether a high definition picture is actually broadcast or if it is just a normal picture that you see every day at home. You really have to watch out for bogus websites.

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Saturday, October 2nd, 2010

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The action is even higher as technological innovation pushes ahead and much more men and women are watching Television on their Pc. Not surprisingly, for those who have cable or satellite Television, it is possible to view whatever is on ESPN – hopefully it’s your crew that’s playing, but no guarantees! But, if you really want to look at genuine Dallas Cowboys vs Arizona Cardinals motion – are living, you actually must contemplate observing your Dallas Cowboys vs Arizona Cardinals on your Personal computer.

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About 6 months ago, I had to travel to Europe for company, but I was heading to be away for two weekends – that means I would miss two Dallas Cowboys vs Arizona Cardinals video games! I decided that I wasn’t heading to skip any motion and, just before I left, I downloaded that economical ($50) proprietary software program onto my laptop. When I finally settled into my tiny hotel in London, I was able to catch practically all of the sport! To me (and quite a few other fans, I’m sure) this was very important – why not use modern technologies to make life far more enjoyable? I did! You’ll by no means need to skip another Dallas Cowboys vs Arizona Cardinals recreation ever again!

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Tuesday, June 22nd, 2010

Random Poll :) :):):):):):):):):):):)?

It’s for my soc. class I didnt make it and it does have stupid questions

Pick which on you like better :)
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Cubs or White Sox?
Italy or Germany?
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Dark brown eyes or Light brown eyes?
Snow or Rain?
Christmas or fourth of July?
Brunette or Blonde?
Straight or Curly hair?
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New York
White Sox
Italy
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Chicago Cubs MLB Unisex Big Logo Flip Flops


Chicago Cubs MLB Unisex Big Logo Flip Flops



Support your favorite team with these unisex Big Logo Flip Flops from Forever Collectibles. These flip flops come in your favorite team’s colors and include the team logo. Makes the perfect gift! Comes in sizes XS-XL. The size breakdown is as follows: X-Small (Women 5-6), Small (Women 7-8), Medium (Women 9-10, Men 7-8), Large (Men 9-10), X-Large (Men 11-12). Made of 100% PVC straps, 80% EVA/20% ru…


Chicago Cubs Ladies Navy Blue Sequin Strap Flip Flops


Chicago Cubs Ladies Navy Blue Sequin Strap Flip Flops


$20.00


Ladies, make sure you rock dazzling style from head to toe when you cheer on your Cubs in these team-spirited flip flops! These comfy foam sandals feature a appliqué team logo on each outer strap and – for just the right amount of glitz and glam – sequins lining the straps. X-Small fits ladies 5-6; Small fits ladies 7-8; Medium fits ladies 9-10; Large fits ladies 11-12.Applique logoFoam solesSole…

Chicago Bears Women’s Her Cheer Top

Friday, June 18th, 2010

Inspirational Quotes

Inspiration is something all of us need now and then.The daily fight with life sometimes takes a toll on our health and mere coping with our circumstances become too hard for us to bear. It is at times like these that we crave for some kind of inspiration, some cheering up fro our friends and dear ones. Even a little motivation is often enough to put our failures behind us and start afresh to run fast towards success.

Famous men and women have always had something to say about inspiration. That is evident when you go through the utterances and writings of these people which are now used as inspirational quotes. You cannot help but marvel how right Confucius was in saying

Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.

These famous motivational quotes give an idea about the profound state of mind of these great men and women that had helped them achieve such greatness and adulation from others. It is their inspirational thought that helped them reach for the seemingly unattainable and acquire it for themselves and their fellow beings.

Shoot for the moon. Even if you miss, you’ll land among the stars.
~ Les Brown.

Don’t let what you can’t do stop you from doing what you can do.
~ John Wooden.

The question isn’t who is going to let me; it’s who is going to stop me.
~ Ayn Rand.

There are famous Inspirational Quotes from literature that have inspired many ordinary people to do the unthinkable and make their lives change for the better.

Don’t leave a stone unturned. It’s always something, to know you’ve done the most you could.
~ Nicholas Nickleby.

The Sun himself is weak when he first rises, and gathers strength and courage as the day gets on.
~ The Old Curiosity Shop.

There have also been many Inspirational movie quotes that continue to inspire generations of movie lovers.

You can like the life you’re living,
you can live the life you like.
~ Chicago.

There is such a thing as fate, but it only takes you so far. Then it’s up to you to make it happen.
~ Can’t Hardly Wait.

If you need inspiration, or know someone who needs to be motivated, you should go through some such inspirational quotes. And you should do it now for as Voltaire said,

The longer we dwell on our misfortunes, the greater is their power to harm us.

Visit http://allfamousquotes.weebly.com/inspirational-twitter-quotes.html to get some nice inspirational quotes to send to your friends and loved ones.

Cheers,
Madhumita Roy.


Julie's Gift: Memories of London


Julie’s Gift: Memories of London


$10.97


Kevin and Julie travel to London. Kevin loathes sightseeing. Julie is the quintessential tourist. Kevin ends up enjoying the trip but doesn’t tell Julie. He secretly writes a book about his fond memories to surprise her and express his love….

New England Patriots Women’s Her Cheer Top

Wednesday, April 21st, 2010

Re-emergence of the Red Sox

One cannot talk about Massachusetts without mentioning the great sports teams that call the Commonwealth home. It has a very rich sporting tradition, stemming from the success of its teams over the years. No other organization has won more than the 17-time NBA Champion Boston Celtics. In its 65 year existence, it has produced a number of NBA legends, including Bill Russell and Larry Bird. Opposing teams have to deal with the so-called Celtic Mystique when playing in the Celtics’ home floor. The New England Patriots also have a winning tradition, winning all three of its Super Bowl championships in four years. They also won 21 straight games, an NFL record, in the process. The Pats are always one of the most competitive teams in the league, a testament to their consistency as a team. Massachusetts’ NHL team, the Boston Bruins, is also a successful sports franchise. The Bruins have won a total of 6 Stanley Cups, the second-most among all the American teams. There is no denying the fact that Massachusetts has experienced success in a variety of sports, but there is one thing most Bostonians would rather forget in their hometown’s rich sports history – The Curse of the Bambino. The curse was broken in 2004 but it will be forever taint the otherwise perfect sports history of the state.

The Red Sox have 7 World Series titles all in all, but the 86-year wait for that 6th one was long and grueling. It all started with the sale of a Red Sox pitcher, Babe Ruth, to the New York Yankees in 1919. That started a series of misfortunes and hardships for the team, losing lead after lead, collapsing game after game, while the Yankees became one of the most successful franchises in Major League Baseball. People hid their red socks merchandise and began to give up on their hometown team rather than have their hearts broken again and again. But that all changed in 2004, when the Red Sox won the World Series and broke the curse. Not long after, the Red Sox won another championship in 2007, proving indeed the curse was gone. Fans are happy to proclaim their allegiance to their team and can be seen wearing Red Sox tshirts and caps. Many Massachusetts women also show off their hometown pride wearing phiten necklaces with the Red Sox insignia. The proud Bostonians can once again root for a championship team without the idea of a curse looming above their heads.

Massachusetts’ rich tradition of domination in most professional sports is continued year after year in sport after sport. Whether it is for the Red Sox or the Bruins, the Celtics or the Patriots, the fans of Massachusetts sports teams have plenty to cheer about.

DESIGNER! Sneakers Women’s FLAT Shoes Medium

Tuesday, November 24th, 2009

Design Your Own Asics Running Shoes

If you want to design your own asics running shoes, go ahead because it a great way to show your creativity as well as your aesthetic sense. In case you are wondering how to design your own asics running shoes.

To design your own asics running shoes you need imagination and creativity and an exact picture of the asics running shoes in question. Now let’s take a look at how to design asics shoes on the internet.

 

Design Your Own asics running Shoes Online

Starting Off: To start off, let us get the fact straight that when you design your asics shoes online, you are not designing them from scratch. They are already made but you have a lot of customization options, the effect is as such that they have been from scratch and are totally in sync with your taste.

The Next Step: Log on to the website of the company you want to design shoes from –Asics and the likes. You name it and the style is there – heels, pumps, flats and so on and available in the usual shoe making material. After you choose the shoe, there will be options for personalization and customization next to the shoe.

Width of the asics Shoes: Have narrow or wide feet? Well, almost every style you chose will have a medium, wide and narrow option at all the footwear brand websites. See, so you need not worry about that!

Size it Up: Check out your size while you are designing your own asics shoes on the website. There is hardly a chance that you would not find your size. You would find a section including styles meant for big sizes. The normal range is between size 4 and 10 for women’s shoes.

Heel and Sole Curry: This customization is so fabulous that you get the choice to even pick the height of your heels on some websites. In addition to that you can also choose a color, for which you would be spoilt for choice. This applies to the the whole asics shoe as well. Insoles are also available online for a nominal charge.

There can be some slight variations in the options and interface of the website, but these are the standard factors where maximum customization is done. So fiddle and play with these and get the asics running shoes you exactly are longing for!

Are you ready then to design your own asics running shoes? Happy Shoe making!


FASHION! FUR Trim Buckle GRAY Winter BOOTS 7.5 Medium


FASHION! FUR Trim Buckle GRAY Winter BOOTS 7.5 Medium



Ultra chic Flat wedge boot with Fur lined detail. Adjustable buckle strap on shaft. Stitch detailing on straps and lower part area, with full side zipper for easy on/off. Heel: 1″ Total Height: 14″ Circumference: 16″ New: In Original Box wo7.5zz …

New York Jets Women’s Her Cheer Top

Wednesday, September 16th, 2009

A Brief History of NFL Cheerleaders

The history of NFL cheerleaders goes back to the 1960s when the Baltimore Colts (now the Indianapolis Colts) had formed their very own cheerleading squad. It was the first team to have an official cheerleading squad out of all the other NFL teams. A few other teams decided to have their own cheerleaders as well. NFL cheerleading was nothing like it is today but when the Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders came around in their revealing outfits and dance routines, cheerleading became incredibly popular in sports entertainment.

The manager of the Dallas Cowboys knew that women could have an important role in promoting their team and their public image. He first tried to put some models out on the field for the audience. The models couldn’t survive the heat during the games and turned out to be a failure in terms of entertaining the sports fans. Determined to make his idea work, the Dallas Cowboys manager thought of a brand new concept at the time. This concept was to bring athletic dancers to perform choreographed routines on the sidelines. He held auditions where women were selected for their dance skills, looks, and style. The Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders were formed and the squad took to the field their custom-made uniforms and dance routines. The sports fans loved this and the NFL cheerleaders skyrocketed with popularity at Super Bowl X where America’s millions of people sitting at home saw a glimpse of these newborn stars on television.

With their complex dance routines and pretty looks, the Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders created the new image of NFL cheerleaders. More NFL teams decided to take on a cheerleading squad of their own in order to increase their team’s exposure to the public and media. The latest NFL cheerleading squad to be formed was the “New York Flight Crew” (formed in 2007) who cheer for the New York Jets. With this spurt in popularity, the cheerleaders made guest appearances on television shows, paid events, charity events, and also overseas performances for the US military troops. The NFL cheerleaders contributed greatly to the public image of the NFL greatly as the media began to recognize their presence.

NFL cheerleaders were no longer just dancers on the field but also participated off the field to heighten the public image of the NFL teams. Though the stereotype of cheerleaders is that of a simple-minded, dancing girl, bear in mind that they are actually contributors to the community as well as sophisticated entertainers in the field of sports entertainment.


New York Jets Women's Her Cheer Top


New York Jets Women’s Her Cheer Top


$32.00


Whether you’re tailgating before the game, getting together with other Jets fans for a pre-game party, or just hanging out around the house waiting for the New York game to kick-off, you’ll look great in this New York Jets Women’s Her Cheer Top from Reebok. Features screen printed oversized front logo and wordmark on back plus woven Reebok loop label with contrast color bartack at bottom left….

Julie's Gift: Memories of London


Julie’s Gift: Memories of London


$10.97


Kevin and Julie travel to London. Kevin loathes sightseeing. Julie is the quintessential tourist. Kevin ends up enjoying the trip but doesn’t tell Julie. He secretly writes a book about his fond memories to surprise her and express his love….